Heptameron of the Tales of Margaret, Queen of Navarre, Vol. 1 | Marguerite of Navarre | 1/3
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section five of the head tamarin of the tales of margaret queen of Navarre Volume one this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings on a public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Anna Simone they have Tamron of the tales of Margaret queen of Navarre volume 1 by Margaret of Navarre translated by George Sainsbury section 5 on the heptamer on part 1 it is probable that everyone who has had much to do with the study of literature has conceived certain preferences for books which he knows not to belong absolutely to the first order but which he thinks have been unjustly depreciated by the general judgment and which appealed to his own tastes or sympathies with particular strengths one of such books in my own case is the heptamer on of Margaret of Navarre I've read it again and again sometimes at short intervals sometimes at longer during the lapse of some 5 and 20 years since I first met with it but the place which it holds in my critical judgment and in my private affections has hardly altered at all since the first reading I like it as a reader perhaps rather more that I esteem it as a critic but even as a critic and allowing fully for the personal equation I think that it deserves a far higher place than is generally accorded to it three mistakes as it seems to me pervade most of the estimates critical or uncritical of that tamarin the two first of old days the third of recent origin the first is that it is a comparatively feeble imitation of a great original and that anyone who knows Boccaccio need hardly trouble himself to know Margaret of Navarre the second is that it is a loose if not obscene book disgraceful for a lady to have written or at least mothered and not very creditable for anyone to read the third is that it is interesting as the gossip of a certain class of modern newspapers is interesting because it tells scandal about distinguished personages and has for its interlocutors of distinguished personages who can be identified without much difficulty and the identification of whom adds zest to the reading all these three seem to me to be mistakes of facts and of judgment in the first place depth Ameren burrows from its original literally nothing but plan its stories are quite independent the similarity of name is only a booksellers invention there were rather happy one and the personal setting which is in boccaccio a mere framework has here considerable substance and interest in the second place the accusation of looseness is wildly exaggerated there is one very cool but not in the least immoral story in the heptamer on there are several broad chests on the obnoxious cloister and its vices there are many tales which are not intended for any booze for a squaw and there is a pervading flavor of that half-french half-italian courtship of married women which was at this time usual everywhere out of England the manners are not our manners and what may be called the moral tone is distinguished by a singular cast of which more presently but if not entirely a book for boys and girls depth Amran is certainly not one which Southie need have accepted from his admirable answer in the character of author of the doctor to the person who wondered whether he Southie could have daughters and if so whether they liked reading he has daughters they love reading and he is not the man I take him for if they are not allowed to open any book in his library the last error if not so entirely inconsistent with intelligent reading at the book as the first and second is scarcely less strange to me for in the first place the identification of the personages in the framework of their tamron depends upon the merest and as it seems to me the idlest conjecture and in the second the interests of the actual tittle-tattle whether it could be fathered on ARB or not is the least part of the interest of the book indeed the stories altogether are as I think far interesting and the framework let us see therefore if we cannot treat the apt Ameren in a somewhat different fashion from that in which any previous critic even st. birth has treated it the divisions of such treatment are not very far to seek in the first place let us give some account of the work so the same class which preceded and perhaps patterned it in the second let us give an account of the supposed ulcer of her other works and of the probable character of her connection with this one in the third without attempting dry argument let us give some sketch of the vital part which we have called the framework and some general characteristics of the stories and in the fourth and last let us endeavor to disengage that peculiar tone flavor note or whatever word may be preferred which as it seems to me at least at once distinguishes the heptamer on from other books of the kind and renders it particularly attractive to those whose temperament and taste predisposes them to be attracted for there is a great deal of pre-established harmony and literature and literary tastes and I have a kind of idea that every man has his library marked out frame when he comes into the world and has then only got to get the books and read them Margaret herself refers openly enough to the example of the Decameron which had been translated by her own secretary Antonella muscle a member of her literary country and not improbably connected with the writing or rejecting of the heptamer on itself nor were later italian till tellus likely to be without influence at a time when friend was being italian aided in every possible way to the great disgust of some frenchman by the italian ancestors of patterns need not be dealt with here and can be discovered with ease and pleasure by anyone who wishes in the drier pages of Dunlop earned the more flowery and starry pages of mr. Simmonds history of a renaissance in italy the next few pages will deal only with the french tale tell us whose productions before Margaret's days were if not very numerous far from uninteresting and whose influence on this difference of siya which distinguishes the tails before us from Italian tails was by no means slight in France as everywhere else prose fiction like prose of all kinds was considerably later in production than verse and short tales of the kind before us were especially postponed by the number excellence and popularity of the first Fabio of these large numbers have come down to us and they exactly correspond in verse to the tales of the Decameron and their tamarin in prose except that the satirical motive is even more strongly marked and that touches of romantic sentiment are rarer this element of romance however appears abundantly in the long prose versions of the etherion and other legends and we have a certain number of short prose stories of the 13th and 14th centuries of which the most famous is that of a casa inequality these letter however are rather short romances than distinct prose tales of are kind of that kind the first famous book in French and the only famous book besides the one before us is the Sant new ville-nouvelle the authorship of this book is very uncertain it purports to be a collection of stories told by different persons of the Society of louis xi when he was but dosa and was in exile and in flanders under the protection of the Duke of Burgundy but it has of late years been very generally assigned their own rather slender grounds of probability and none of positive evidence – Anthony della Sera the best French prose writer at the 15th century except Komine and one on whom with an audience conjectural criticism has bestowed decides his acknowledged romance of late chivalrous society patty Honda Suntree the work which itself has some affinities with a class of story before us not only this son nouvelle nouvelle but the famous satirical treatise of the cans do mariage and there's still more famous farce of potala some of the nouvelle moreover have imperatively fathered on louis xi himself in which case the royal house of france would boast of two distinguished tale tellers instead of one however this may be they all display the somewhat hard and grim but keen and practical humor which seems to have distinguished that prince which was a characteristic of french thought and temper at the time and which perhaps arose with the misfortunes and hardships of the Hundred Years War the stories are decidedly amusing with a considerably greater they're also a much ruder visca mica than that of the heptamer on and they are told in a style unadorned indeed and somewhat dry lacking the simplicity of the older French and not yet attaining to the graces of the newer but forcible distinct and sculpture esque if not picturesque a great license of subject and language and enjoyment of practical jokes of a roughest not to say the most cruel character prevailed throughout and there's hardly a touch of anything like romance the tales alternating between jests as broad as those are the Reeves and Miller's tales in Chaucer themselves exactly corresponding to furs Fabio of which the son of L are exact prose counterparts and perhaps prose versions and examples of what has been called the humor of the stick which sometimes trench is hard upon the humor of the gallows and a torture chamber these characteristics have made the soul nouvelle nouvelle no great favorite of late but their unpopularity is somewhat undeserved for all their coarseness there's much genuine comedy in them and if the prettiness of romantic and literary dressing up is absent from them so likewise is the in sincerity thereof they make one of the most considerable prose books of what may be called middle French literature and they had much influence on the books that followed especially on this of Margaret's indeed one of the few examples to be found between the two the grand Paragon the nouvelle nouvelle of Nicole tois 1535 obviously takes them for model but Nakula was a dull dog and neither profited by his model nor gave anyone else opportunity to perfect by himself Arabella the first book of whose pantego L anticipated the parkin by three years while the Gargantua coincided with it was a great authority at the court of Margaret's brother Francis dedicated one of the books the third of Pantagruel to her before her death in high-flown language as as prepster that are v IX tactic and must suddenly have been familiar reading of hers and of all the ladies and gentlemen literary and fashionable of a court but there is little resemblance to be found in his style and hers the short stories which master francis scatters about it longer work are indeed models of narration but his whole tone of thought and manner of treatment are altogether alien from those of the ravished Spirit whom he praises his deliberate coarseness is not more different from her deliberate delicacy than his intensely practical spirit from her high-flown romanticism which makes one think of and may have suggested the chord of luck grant and her mixture of devout and amatory caught levitation from his cynical criticism and all dissolving irony but there was a contemporary of kabbalah who forms a kind of link between him and Margaret whose working part is very like to have tamarind and who has been thought I've had more than a hand in it this was one event to display a man whose history is as obscure as his works are interesting born in or about the year 1500 he committed suicide in 1544 either during a fit of insanity or has has been thought more likely in order to escape the danger the persecution which in the last year's of the reign of Francis threatened the unorthodox and which Margaret who had more than once warded it all from them was then powerless to avert this very to speak truth was in far more danger of the stake than most of his friends the infidelity of Paulo is a matter of inference only and some critics among whom the present writer rangs himself see in his daring ridicule of existing abuses nothing inconsistent with a perfectly sound of liberally conditioned orthodoxy desper a like rubella was illusionist but his modernizing of lucien a remarkable book called symbaloo Mundi though pretending to deal with ancient mythology as are almost unmistakable reference to revealed religion it is not however by this work or by this side of his character at all that desperately is brought into connection with the work of Margaret who if learned and liberal and sometimes tending to the new ideas in religion was always devout and always orthodox in fundamentals besides this symbaloo Mundi he has left a curious book not published like the heptamer on itself till long after his own death and entitled nouvelle recreations ayu divvy the tails of which it consists are for the most part very short some being rather sketches or outlines of tales than actually worked out stories so that although there are no less than a hundred and twenty nine of them the whole book is probably not half the bulk of the heptamer on itself but they are extremely well written and especially interesting thing about them is that in them there appears and appears to the first time unless we take the heptamer on itself as earlier which is contrary to all probability the singular and at any rate to some persons very attractive mixture of sentiment and satire of learning and a love of her fine Society of join devotion to heavenly and earthly love of ellipsis enjoyment at the present Blundell and shadowed with the sense of the night that cometh which delights us in the prose of that tamarind and in the first not only of all the play at poets in France but of Spenser done and some of their followers in England the scale of the stories which are sometimes mere anecdotes is so small the room for miscellaneous discourse in them is so scanty the absence of any connecting links such as those of Margaret's own plan checks the expression of personal feeling so much that it is only occasionally that this cast of thought can be perceived but it is there and its presence is an important element in determining the question of the exact authorship of that tamarin itself it can hardly be said that except translations from the Italian of which the close intercourse between France and Italy in the days later FAL WA produced many Margaret had many other examples before her for such a book as the Popol Vuh stick of no LD fair though published before her death is not likely to have exercised any influence over her and most other books of the kind are later than her own one such for despite its bizarre title and its distinct intention of attacking the roman church family as Jen's apology boo hey ho dude is really a collection of stories deserves mention not because of its influence upon the queen of Navarre but because of the queen of Navarre s influence upon it as T n is constantly quoting their tamarin and though to a certain extent the inveteracy with which the Friars are attacked here must have given the book a special attraction for him to things might be gathered from his quotations and attributions the first is that the book was a very popular one the second that there was no doubt among well-informed persons of whom and in whose company as Jen most certainly was that the heptamer on was in more than name the work of its supposed otter from what went before it Margaret could and could not burrow certain well-defined things models both Italian and French gave her the scheme of including a large number of short and curtly but not skimping Li told stories in one general framework and of subdividing them into groups dealing more or less with the same subject or class of subject she'd also in her predecessors the example of drawing largely on that perennial and somewhat facile source of laughter the putting together of incidents and phrases which even by their who laughs at them are regarded as indecorous but of this expedient she availed herself rather less than any of her forerunners she had further the example of a generally satirical intent but here – she was not content merely to follow and her satire is for the most part limited to the corruptions and abuses of the monastic orders it can hardly be said that any of the other stock subjects lawyers doctors citizens even husbands for she's less satirical marriage than Akamai astok of love are dealt with much by her she found also in some but chiefly in older books of the shotty and still earlier traditions and rather in Italian than in French a certain strain of romance proper and of adventure but of this also she availed herself but rarely what she did not find in any example unless and then but partially in the example of her own servant Buenaventura Despereaux ye was first the interweaving of a great deal not merely of formal religious exercise but of positive religious diversion in her work and secondly the infusing into it of the peculiar Renaissance contrast so often to be noticed of love and death passion and piety for luckiest enjoyment and sombre anticipation but it is now time to say a little more about the personality and work of this lady whose name all this time we've been using freely and who was indeed a very notable person quite independently of her literary work nor was she and literature by any means and a notable one quite independently of the collection of unfinished stories which after receiving at its first posthumous publication the not particularly appropriate title of Lisa Mont 14e was more fortunately renamed albeit by something of a bull for there's the beginning of an eighth day as well as the full complement of the seven heptamer on few ladies have been known in history by more and more confusing titles than the author of the heptamer on the confusion arising partly from the fact that she had a nice and a great niece of the same charming Christian name as herself ii margaret de valois the most appropriate name of all three as it was theirs by family right was a daughter of Francis the first the patroness of Rome sir and somewhat late in life the wife of the duke of savoy a marriage which as the bride carried with her a dowry of territory was not popular and brought some caused guests on her not much is said of her personal appearance after her infancy but she inherited her aunt's literary tastes if not her literary powers and gave honza powerful support in his early days the third was the daughter of henry ii the gross marco of her brother henry the third the rain marco of de man novel the idol of pan Tom the first wife of Henry the fourth the beloved of keys la mole and a long succession of gallons the rival of her sister-in-law Mary Stuart not in misfortunes but as the most beautiful gracious learner accomplished an amiable of the ladies of our time this Margaret would have been an almost perfect heroine of romance for she had every good quality except chasity if she had not unluckily lived rather too long her great aunt our present subject was not the equal of her great niece in beauty her portraits being rendered uncomely by pretentiously long nose longer even the mrs. citizens and by a very curious expression of the eyes going near to Salinas but the face is one which can be imagined as much more beautiful than it seems in a not very attractive posture at the time and her actual attractions are attested by her contemporaries with something more than the homage to order which literary man have never failed to pay to ladies who are patronizes of letters besides margaret of valois she is known as Margaret of Anjou limb from her place of birth and her father's title Margaret of Allen saw from the fever first husband Margaret of Navarre of which country like her grand knees she was queen by her second marriage with Henry EE and even Margaret of a Lyon as belonging to the early on bulge of the royal house she was not like her nieces Margaret of France as her father never rained and Blanton probably denies her the title but others sometimes give it when it is necessary to call her anything besides the simple Margaret on Gulam is at once the most appropriate and the most distinctive designation she was born on the 11th or 12th of April 1492 her father being Charles count of angoulême and her mother Louise of Savoy she was their eldest child and two years older than her brother the future King Francis according to and even in excess of the custom of the age she received a very learner education acquiring not merely the three tongues French Italian and Spanish which were all in common use at the French Court during her time but Latin and even a little Greek and a little Hebrew she lived in the provinces both before and after her marriage in 1509 to her relation Charles Duke of Allen son who was older than herself by three years and though a fair soldier and an inoffensive person was apparently of little talents and not particularly amiable the accession of her brother to the throne opened a much more brilliant career to her she and her mother jointly exercised great influence over Frances and the Duchess of ansel to whom her brother shortly afterwards gave Barry was for many years one of the most influential persons in a kingdom using her influence almost invariably for good her husband died soon after pavia and in the same year September 1525 she undertook a journey to Spain on behalf of her captive brother this journey with some expressions in the letters and in Bantam has been wrested by some critics in order to prove that her affair for Francis was warmer than it ought to have been an imputation wanton in both senses the word she was sought in marriage by or offered in marriage to diverse distinguished persons during her widowhood and this was also the time of her principal diplomatic exercise an office for which or as it now seems for a woman she had like her mother like her niece Catherine of Medicis like her namesake margaret of parma and like other ladies of the age a very considerable aptitude and reputation when she had last married the match was not a brilliant one there would proved contrary to immediate probability to be the source of the last and the most glorious branch of the royal dynasty of france the bridegroom were indeed the title of king of Navarre and possessed by yarn but his kingdom had long been in Spanish hands and but for his wife's diary of Allinson and epinet chief berry – which Frances had added Armagnac and a large pension he would have been but a Lackland furthermore he was 11 years younger than herself and it is at least insinuated that the affection if there was any was chiefly on her side at any rate is earlier Henry of Navarre seems to have had not a few of the characteristics of his grandson together with a violence and brutality which to the vehicle own justice from no part of his character the only son of the marriage died young and the girl Jane della mother of the great bourbon race of the next two centuries was taken away from her parents by reasons of state for a time the domestic life of Margaret however concerns us but little except in one way her husband disliked administration and she was the principal ruler and their rather extensive estates or dominions moreover she was able at a quasi court to extend the literary coteries which had already begun to fool matt paris the pattern to men of letters for which her brother is famous was certainly more due to her than to himself and to her also was do the partial toleration of religious liberty which for a time distinguished his reign it was not till her influence was weakened that intolerance prevailed and she was able even then for a time to save morrow and other distinguished persons from persecution it is rather a moot point how far she inclined to the reformed doctrine properly so cold her letters his series and poetical work had even had tamarin itself show a fervently pietistic spirit and occasionally seemed to testify to a distinct inclination towards Protestantism which is also positively attested by Pantone and others but this Protestantism must have been so far as it was consistent and definite at all the Protestantism of Erasmus rather than of Luther of wobbly rather than of Calvin she had a very strong objection to the coarseness devices the idleness the brutish ignorance of the cloister she had aspirations after more spiritual form of religion and the ordinary Catholicism of her day provided and as a strong politician she may have had something of that Gallican ISM which has always been well marked in some of the best Frenchmen and which at one time nearly prevailed with her great-great grandson louis xiv but there is no doubt that as her brother said to the fanatical monk Morrissey she would always have been and always was of his religion the religion of the state the site of the Reformation which must have most appealed to her was neither its austere morals nor its bare ritual north doctrines properly so-called but it's spiritual Pietism and it's connection with profane learning and letters for of literature margaret was an ardent devotee and a constant practitioner her best days were done by the time of her second marriage after the Kings returned from Spain persecution broke out and Margaret's influence became more and more weak to stop it as early as 1533 her own memoir the lumpatious then in a second edition provoked the fanaticism of the Sorbonne and the King had to interfere in Paris to protect his sister's work and herself from gross insult the Medici marriage increased the persecuting tendency and for a time there was even an attempt to suppress printing and with it all that new literature which was the Queen's delight she was herself in some danger but Frances had not sunk so low as to permit any actual attack – made on her yet all the last years of her life were unhappy though she continued to keep cold at near akin pool to accompany her brother in his progresses and as we know from documents to play lady bountiful over a wide area of France her husband appears to have been rather at variance with her and her daughter who married first and a name only the Duke of clev in 1540 and later 15:48 Anthony de Bourbon was also not on cordial terms with her mother by the date of this second marriage Frances was dead and though we had for many years been anything but wholly kind Margaret's good days were now in truth done her nephew Henry left her in possession of our revenues but does not seem to have been very affectionately disposed towards her and even had she been inclined to attempt any recovery of influence his wife and his mistress Catherine de Medici and Diana of Watchi two women is different from Margaret as they were from one another would suddenly have prevented her from obtaining it as a matter of fact however she had long been in ill health and her brother's death seems to have dealt her the final stroke she survived it two years even as she been born two years before him and died on the 21st December 1549 at the castle of odo near tarp having lived in almost complete retirement for a considerable time her husband is said to have regretted her dead more than he loved her living and her literary admirers such as them as death and exile had spared were not ungrateful tombow or collections of funeral verses were not lacking the first being in Latin and oddly enough nominally by three English sisters and Margaret and Jane seem our nieces of Henry the eighth's Queen and Edward the sixth mother with learn at persons like Dora st. mark and by if this was reissued in French and in a fuller form later end of section five Section six of the tamron love the tales of margaret queen of Navarre vol 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by anna simon heptamer all of the tales of margaret queen of Navarre volume 1 by Margaret of Navarre translated by George Sainsbury section 6 on the heptamer all part to some reference has been made to an atrocious slur cast without a shred of evidence on her moral character there is as little foundation for more general though milder charges of laxity it is admitted that she had little love for her first husband and it seems to be probable that her second had not much love for her she was certainly addressed in gallant strains by men of letters the most audacious being Clement Maho but the almost universal reference of the well-known and delightful lines beginning and una nueva conducive to her method of dealing not merely with this lover but with others argues a general confidence in her being a virtuous Coquet if somewhat coquettish ly virtuous it may be added that the whole tone of the heptamer own pointed to a very similar conclusion her literary work was very considerable and it falls on the three divisions letters the book before us and the very curious and interesting collection of poems known by the charming a fantastic title of lee Marguerite de la Marguerite de Princess a play on the meanings daisy pearl and Margaret which had been popular in the artificial school of French poetry since the end of the thirteenth century in a vast number of forms the letters are naturally of the very first importance for determining the character of Margaret's life as a woman of business the diplomatist and so forth they show her to us in all these capacities had also in that of an enlightened and always ready patroness of letters and of men of letters further they are a value though their value is somewhat affected by a reservation to be Mae immediately as to her mental and moral characteristics but there are not of literary interests at all equal to that of either of the other divisions they are if not spoiled still not improved by the fact at the art of easy letter-writing in which French women of the next century were to show themselves such professions had not yet been developed and that most of them are couched in a heavy laborious semi-official style which smells as far as mere style goes of the converse refinement of the rhetoric curves and whose flourishing time Margaret herself grew up and which conceals the right of sentiments and their elaborate forms of ceremonial curtsy something at least the groundless scandal before referred to is derived in all probability if not in all certainty from the lavish use of hyperbole in addressing her brother and generally speaking the rebuke the Queen to Polonius more matter with less art is applicable to the whole correspondence something of the same evil influence is shown in the Marguerite it must be remembered that the right had died before the play art movement had been fully started and that she was older by five years than Maho the only one of her own contemporaries and her own literary circle who attained to a poetic style easier freer and more genuine than the converse rhetoric partly derived from the allegorize install of the hormone levels and its followers partly influenced by corrupt following of the rediscovered and scarcely yet understood classics partly alloyed with Flemish and German and Spanish stiffness of which shephelah kitten and the rest have been the frequently quoted and the rarely read exponents to students a friend literature the countenance of the Marguerite to take the order of the beautiful edition of monsieur felix funk bars flows Volume one contains first a long and singular religious poem entitled lumira the lumpiness in rhymed Decca syllables in which pretty literal paraphrases of a large number of passages of Scripture are strung together with an amount of pious comment and reflection this is followed after a shorter piece on a contest in the human soul between the laws of the spirit and other flesh by another poem of about the same length as the mere wife and of no very different character and titled arrives on the lam Fidel asan senior year and the shorter our resume are not Racine your sheaves atleast complete the volume the second volume yields for so called comedies but really mysteries on the old medieval model only distinguishable from their forerunners by slightly more modern language and a more scriptural tone the subjects are Nativity the adoration of the three kings the massacre of the innocents and the flight into Egypt the third volume contains a third poem in the style of the mere wife but much superior literally on of the lagna a considerable body of spiritual songs a miscellaneous poem or two and some epistles chiefly addressed to Frances these last begin the smaller and secular division of the Marguerite which is completed in the fourth volume by liket Adam le ca'tridge and alone composed of long monologues after the fashion of the fourth era shark GH school by a committee poor Fang a farce entitled tol pooh-pooh moi a long love poem began in the Chartier style entitled la roche and some minor pieces opinion as these poems has varied somewhat but their merit has never been put very high nor to tell the truth could it be put high by anyone who speaks critically in the first place they are written for the most part on very bad models both in general plan and a particular style and expression the plan is that has been said taken from the long-winded allegorical erotic poetry of the very late 13th the 14th and the 15th centuries poetry which is now among the most difficult to read in any literature the groundwork or canvas being transferred from love to religion it gains little in freshness and directness of purpose but hardly in general readable thus for instance two whole pages the my wife or some 40 or 50 lines are taken up with endless playings in the words more and V and the derivatives such as more TPA and marked VA mark VI and V mu hold the sacred comedies or mysteries have the tediousness and lack of action of the older pieces are the same kind without their naivete and pretty much the same may be said of the profane comedy which is a kind of morality and at the farce of luck oh Sh what has been said of the long sacred poems may be said except that here we go back to the actual sceptre of the models not on the whole with advantage well in a minor pieces the same workplace and frigid concedes are observable but if this somewhat severe judgment must be passed on the poems at holes and from a certain point of view it may be considerably softened when they're considered more in detail in not a few passages of the religious poems Margaret has reached and as she had no examples before her except models Psalms which were themselves later than at least some of her work may be said to have anticipated that grave and solemn harmony of the French Huguenots of the 16th century which in do Berta IND Agrippa doping ye and in passages of the Trojan Mon Christian strikes notes hardly touched elsewhere in French literature the Triomphe the lung no displays her at her best in this respect and not unfrequently comes not too far off from the apocalyptic resonance of Dubonnet himself again the battery included in a nativity comedy or mystery there was something of a tree stand bear jury they use a later image is graceful and elegant enough in all conscience but it is on the minor poems especially the epistles and the shown song spiritual the defenders of Margaret's claim to be a poet rest most strongly in the former her love not merely for her brother but for her husband appears unmistakably as just graceful thoughts in letter the force and fire which occasionally break through the stiff wrappings of the longer poems appear with less difficulty and in fuller measure it is however undoubtedly curious and not to be explained mainly by the difference of subject that the styles of the letters and of the poems agreeing well enough between themselves differ most remarkably from that of the heptamer on the two former are decidedly open to the charges of pedantry artificiality and heaviness there is a great surplusage of words and a seeming inability to get to the point the heptamer on if not equal in a narrative vigor and lightness to Boccaccio before and Lafon ten afterwards is not an at least exposed to the charge of clumsiness of any kind employs a simple natural and sufficiently picturesque vocabulary avoids all verbiage and round about writing and both inner narratives and in the connecting conversation displays a very considerable advance upon nearly all the rights of the time etc Bella Morrow and despair ye in easy command at a vernacular it is therefore not wonderful that there has at different times rather less of late years but that is probably an accident in a disposition if not to take away from Margaret all the credit to the book at any rate to give a share of it to others in so far as this share is attempted to be bestowed on ladies and gentlemen of her court or family there is very little evidence for it but insofar as the pen may be thought to have been sometimes held for her but distinguished men of letters just referred to there is no reason why master Francis himself should not have sometimes guided and by others only less distinguished there is considerable internal reason to favour the idea at all times and in all places in France perhaps more than anywhere else kings and queens lords and ladies have found no difficulties we need not used harsh Voltaire Ian Carlyle Ian's phrase and say in getting their literary work back washed but in getting it pointed and seasoned trimmed and ornamented for professional men of letters the form of that Tamron lends itself more than any other to such assistance and while I should imagine that the setting with its strong color both of religiosity and M resinous is almost wholly Margaret's work I should also think it's so likely has to be nearly certain that in some at least of the tales the hands of the authors of the symbol of Mundi and the Adela songs Clementine of Limassol and brodo may have worked at the devising very likely reshaped and adjusted by the Queen herself of the actual stories as we have them now the book as we have it consists of seven complete days of ten novels each and of an eighth containing two novels only the fictitious scheme of the setting is somewhat less lugubrious than that of the Decameron but still not without an element of tragedy on the 1st of September when the hot springs of the Pyrenees begin to enter upon their virtue the company of persons of quality assembled at coordinate we're told and abode there are three weeks with much profit but when they tried to return rain setting with such severity that they thought that deluge had come again and they found their roots especially that to the French side almost entirely barred by the golfed beyond and other rivers so they scattered in different directions most of them taking the Spanish side either along the mountains and across to oversee or straight to Barcelona and thence home by sea but a certain widow named was he made away with much loss of men and horses to the abbey of not Kadam the salons here she was joined by diverse gentlemen and ladies who had had even worse experiences travel than herself with bears and brigands and other evil things so that one of them longer he had lost her husband murdered in an affray in one of the cutthroat Inns always dear to romance besides this disconsolate person and was he the company consisted of a married pair here kong and parliament two young Cavaliers Degussa and Safra don't two young ladies no more feed and Anna sweet similar to a Cavalier servant of parliament and gable a knight older and discreet her than the rest of the company except wes iya these form the party and is to be noted that idle and contradictory as all the attempts made to identify them have been for instance the most confident interpreters hesitate between messiah and parliament an aged widow and a youthful wife for Margaret herself it is not to be denied that the various parts are kept up with much decision and spirit of the men indeed hair cone is the only one who has a very decided character and is represented as fond of his wife Balam aunt but decided Libertines and of a somewhat rough and ruthless general character points would have made the interpreters sure that he must be Holly dalbray the others except that Gabriel is as has been said older than his companions and that Simone to size vainly after Parliament are merely walking gentlemen at the time accomplished enough but not individual the women are much more distinct and show a woman's hand Basia is as our own 17th century ancestors would have said ancient and sober very devout regarded with great respect by the rest of the company and accepted as a kind of mistress both of the Revels and of more serious matters but still a woman of the world and content to make only an occasional and mild protest against tolerably free stories and sentiments Parliament considerably younger and though verges not by any means ignorant of her holy averse to the devotion of Simone to indulging occasionally in a kind of mild conjugal sparring with her husband here come but apparently devoted to him full of religion and romans and refinement at once is a very charming character resembling madame deceiving ye as she may have been in her unknown or hardly known youth when husband and lovers alike are attracted by the flame of her beauty and charm only to complain that it froze and did not burn long Guardian is discreetly unhappy for her dead husband but appears decidedly consolable and a sweet is a haughty damsel disdainful of poor folk and no more feed is a pure madcap the Catherine Satan of the generation before Catherine herself the feminine do neo of the party and if a little too free spoken for prudish modern taste a very delightful girl now when this good company had assembled it sells and told each other their misadventures the waters on inquiry seemed to be out more widely and more dangerously than before so that it was impossible to think of going farther for the time they deliberated accordingly how they should employ themselves and after allowing on the proposal of Wasi an ample space for sacred exercises they resolved that every day after dinner and an interval they should assemble in a meadow on the bank of the gaff at midday and tell stories the device is carried out with such success that the monks still behind the hatches to hear them and an occasional postponement of Vespers takes place Simone toe begins and the system of tale tiling goes round on the usual plan of each speaker naming him or her who shall follow it should be observed that no general subject is as in the Decameron prescribed to the speakers of each day though as a matter of course one subject often suggests another of not the similar kind nor is there did a quranic arrangement of the king between the stories and also between the days there is often a good deal of conversation in which the diverse characters as given above are carried out with a – very different from the chief italian original from what has been said already it will be readily perceived other novels or rather their subjects are not very easy to class in any rationalized order the great majority if they do not answer exactly to the old title of lays east where these amount Fotini are devoted to the eternal subject of the tricks played by wives the disadvantage of husbands by husbands to the disadvantage of wives and sometimes by lovers to this advantage of both sit till it E is a frequent word in the titles and it corresponds to a real thing another large division trenching somewhat upon the first is composed of stories to the discredited amongst something though less is set against the secular clergy and especially of the kodály or Franciscans an order who for their course immorality and their brutal antipathy to learning for the special black or other gray beasts of the literary forms of the time in a considerable number there are references to actual percentage of the time references which stand on a very different footing of identification from the puerile guessing's at the personality of the interlocutors so often referred to sometimes these references are about earned immunity the legend the never Lavoie Francois Montes a generosity from president the granola infirmed aerosol and so forth at other times the reference is somewhat more covert but hardly to be doubted as in the remarkable story of a great prince obviously Francis himself who used on his journeyings to and from an assignation of a very legitimate character to turn into a church and piously pursue his devotions there are a few curious stories in which amatory matters play only a subordinate part or none at all though it must be confessed that this last is a rare thing some are mere anecdote plays and words sometimes pretty free and then generally told by Noma feed or quasi historical such as that already noticed of the generosity of Francis to a traitor ordeal with remarkable trials and crimes or merely miscellaneous matters the best of the last class being the capital born in Venson bourgeoisie lolita in so large a number of stories with so great a variety of subjects it naturally cannot but be the case that there is a considerable versity of tone but that peculiarity at which we have glanced more than once the combination of voluptuous passion with passionate regret and a mystical devotion is seldom absent for long together the general note indeed of the heptamer own is given by more than one passage in one tone at greatest length by 1 which Sandburg has rightly quoted at the same time it also rightly rebuking the sceptical appeased determination to see in it little more than a piece of pursues Menelaus though indeed the pleasures were not yet yet even sent birth has scarcely pointed out quite strongly enough how entirely this is the keynote of all Margaret's work and especially of their tamarin the story therefore may be worth telling again though it may be found in the shinky MD School of the VD dum gallant bantams brother not yet a captain in the army but a student traveling in Italy had in surger nning at Ferrara when Renea phones was Duchess fallen in love with a certain Mademoiselle de la Hache for love of him she had returned to France and visiting his own country of Gascony had attached herself to the core of Margaret where she had died and it happened that birthday six months afterwards and having forgotten all about his dead love came to pooh and went to pay his respects to the queen he met her coming back from Vespers and she greeted him graciously and they talked of this matter and of that but as they walk together hither and thither the Queen drew him without calls shown into the church she had just left where Mademoiselle de la Roche was buried cousin said she do you feel nothing stirring beneath you and under your feet but he said nothing Madame think cousin then said she once again but he said Madame I have thought well but I feel Mort for under me there is but a stone hard and firmly said now do I tell you that the Queen leaving him no longer it's that you are above the tomb and the body of Matmos el de la Hache who is buried beneath you and whom you loved so much in our lifetime and since our souls have since after our death it cannot be but that this faithful one that so lately felt your presence as soon as she came near her and if you have not perceived it because of the thickness of the tomb doubt not that nonetheless she felt it and for as much as it is a pious work to make memory of the dead and notably of those whom we loved I pray you give her a partner and an RV and likewise that they pour fullness and pour out holy water so shall you make a quest of the name of her right faithful lover and a good Christian and she left him that he might do this bantam that we had an admiration for Margaret whose lady of honor his grandfather had been and who according to the birthday tradition composed her novels in traveling thought is a pretty fashion of Converse voila he says look in the oldest set bond princess like a Latin apparently less they perform the TV kupah Crianza Manavi sing bath from the country and with better reason season it faith graciousness feminine delicacy and piety at once no doubt but there is something more than this and that something more is what we are in search of and we shall find now in one way now in another throughout the book something were of the sentiment of Dunn's famous thoughts on the old lovers ghost on the blanched bone with circulate of golden tresses is the best-known instant in English the madcap Norma feed indeed lays it down that the meditation of death cools the heart not a little but are more experienced companions no better the worst side of this Renaissance peculiarity is told in the last tale a rather ghastly story of monkish corruption it's lighter side appears in the story already referred to of the gong prince and his pious devotions on the way to not particular the pious occupation but touches the more poetical and romantic effects of it are all over the book it is to be found in the story of the gentleman who first took the world because of his beloved's cruelty or at she repenting that likewise he'd much better have thrown away his cowl and married her got the practical no more feed in that of the wife who to obtain freedom of living with her paramour actually allowed herself to be buried in that very characteristic of the time especially for the touch of farce in it of the unlucky person to whom phlebotomy and love together were fatal and they're not a few others while it emerges in casual phrases of the intermediate conversations and of the stories themselves even when it is not to be detected in the general character of the subjects and thus we can pretty well decide what is the most interesting and important part of the whole subject the question what is the special virtue of their tamron I've myself little hesitation in answering there is no book in prose and of so early a date which shows to me the characteristic of the time and it influenced the two great literary nations of Europe so distinctly as this book of Margaret of an golem take it as a book of court gossip and it is rather less interesting than most books of court gossip which is saying much take it as the performance of a single person and you're confronted with a difficulty that is quite unlike that other persons more certain works and that it is in all probability a joint affair take it separate stories and with rare exceptions they are not of the first order of interest or even of the second but separate the individual per bit of these stories for the general color or tone of them take this general color or tone in connection with a tenor of the intermediate conversations which form so striking a characteristic of the book as something quite different appears is that same peculiarities which appears in places and persons and things so different as Spencer as the poetry of the play out is Montaigne at rally as done as the group of singers known as the Caroline poets it is a peculiarity which has shown itself in different forms at different times but never in such vigor and precision as at this time it combines a profound and certainly sincere almost severe religiosity with a very vigorous practice of some things which the religion it professes does not at all countenance it has an almost morbidly pronounced simultaneous sense of the joys and the sorrows of human life the enjoyment of the joy is being perfectly frank and the feeling of the sorrows not in a least sentimental it unites a great general refinement of sort manners opinion with an almost astonishing occasional cautions of opinion manners thought the prevailing note in it is a profound melancholy mixed with flashes and intervals of a no less profound delight there is in it the sense of death to a strange and at first sight almost an intelligible extent only when one remembers the long night of the religious wars which was just about to fall on France just as after Spencer Puritan as he was after Carew and Herrick still more a night of a similar character was about to fall in England does the real reason of this singular idiosyncrasy appear the company of their tamron are the latest representatives at first hand and with no deliberate purpose of presentment of the medieval conception of gentlemen and ladies who fleeted the time golden lee there are not themselves any longer medieval they've been taught modern ways they have a kind of uneasy sense even though one than another of themselves may now and then flout the idea of the importance of other classes even of some duty and their own part towards other classes their piety is a very little deliberate their voluptuous indulgence has a grain of conscience in it and behind it which distinguishes it not less from the frank indulgence of a Greek or Roman than from the still franker naivete of purely medieval art from the childlike almost paradisiac innocence of the Bella sounds and Nicolette's and of the daughter of the great Solan you in that wonderful seriocomic chanson of the voyage a constantinople the mark of modernity is on them and yet there are so little conscious of it and so perfectly free from even the slightest touch of at least its anti religious influence nobody not even here come the gamma of the sixteenth century not even no more feet the most notable of her day in society not even the haughty lady and a sweet who wonders whether Cohen folk can be supposed to have like passions with us feels the abundant religious services and the period of meditation unconscionable or tiresome and so we have here three notes constantly sounding together or an immediate sequence there is the passion of that exquisite Rondo of Mahal's which some will have perhaps not impossibly to refer to Margaret herself on the bezel mighty I me some Blum Cecil Desi Ghee do Bush Amba's leiserson do beyond on despair a same or alike dudesman poverty pants on due to a PC Mac on flung Malenko a dumpling flung car Somalia or own palooka bong-soo fryer through Camus mop robbery on La Paz on breath Mon Esprit some corner songs done Favaro sulla pooja madam Danza move our liquor on a movie a seal Oliver gare de moody contra la mia music Salem on the best song there is a devout meditation of was he and that familiarity with the Scriptures which as have come himself says I trow we all read and know and then there is a note given by two other curious stories of Bantam one tells how the queen of Navarre was earnestly for by the bedside of a dying maid of honor that she might see whether the parting of the soul was a visible fact or not the second tells how when some talked before her the joys of heaven she sighed and said well I know that this is true but we dwell so long dead underground before we arise thither there in a few words is a secret of the head tamarin the fear of God the sense of death the voluptuous longing and for luckiest regret for the good things of life and love that pass away George Sainsbury London October 1892 footnote as I've spoken so strongly of the attempts to identify the personages of the heptamer own it might seem discourteous not to mention that one of the most enthusiastic and erudite English students of Margaret madam thermostat er miss Mary Robinson appears to be convinced of the possibility and advisable nosov covering these originals everything that this lady writes is most agreeable to read but I fear I cannot say their arguments have converted me end of section 6 section 7 of the hep tamarin of the tales of margaret queen of Navarre vol 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org the hep tamarin of the tales of margaret queen of Navarre volume 1 by Margaret of Navarre translated by George st. Marie dedications and preface prefixed to the first two editions of the tales of the queen of Navarre – the most illustrious most humble and most excellent princess Madame Margaret de Bourbon Duchess of NAVAIR Marchioness of heal Countess of ooh of DRO rattled Hwa Columbia and Beaufort lady of aspera more of chambre no of arsh ron-karr Montreux and blah Chappell dodgy own Peter West Chu surnamed lone a offers most humble salutation and perpetual obedience footnote this dedicatory preface appeared in the first edition of Queen Margaret's tales published by boys chew in 1558 under the title of east hua days among fortune a the princess addressed was the daughter of Charles Duke of von dome she was wedded in 1538 to Francis of clev Duke of Navarre and by this marriage became nice to the queen of Navarre editor and footnote Madame that great Oracle of God st. John Chrysostom deplores with infinite compassion in some part of his works the disaster and calamity of his century in which not only was the memory of an infinity of illustrious persons cut off from among mankind but what is more their writings by which the rich conceptions of their souls and the divine ornaments of their minds were to have been consecrated to posterity did not survive them and certainly with most manifest reason did this good and holy man address such a complaint to the whole Christian Republic touched as he was with just grief for an infinity of thousands of books of which some have been lost and buried in eternal forgetfulness by the negligence of man others dispersed and destroyed by the cruel incursions of war others rotted and spoiled as much by the rigour of time as by the carelessness to collect and preserve them where of the ancient histories and annals furnish a sufficient example in the memorable library of that great king of Egypt Ptolemy Philadelphus which had been formed with the sweat and blood of so many notable philosophers and maintained ordered and preserved by the liberality of that great monarch and yet in less than a day by the monstrous and abominable cruelty of the soldiers of Caesar when the latter followed Pompey to Alexandria it was burned and reduced to ashes zone arias the ecclesiastical historian writes that the same happened at Constantinople in the time of Z know when a superb and magnificent Palace adorned with all sorts of manuscript books was burned to the eternal regret and insupportable detriment of all those who made a profession of letters and without amusing ourselves to curiously in recounting the destruction among the Ancients we have in our time experienced a similar loss of which the memory is so recent that the wounds thereof still bleed in all parts of Europe namely when the Turks besieged Buda the capital of Hungary where the most celebrated library of the good King Matthias was pillaged dispersed and destroyed a library which without sparing any expense he had enriched with all the rarest and most excellent books Greek Latin Hebrew and Arabic that he had been able to collect in all the most famous provinces of the earth again he who would particular eyes and closely examine things will find that the offer asti's as he himself declares wrote and composed three hundred volumes Chris apiece 60 impetus ease fifty service so paquius two hundred on civil law Gallienus 130 on the art of medicine and originals six thousand all of which st. jerome attests having read and yet of so many admirable and excellent authors there now remained to us only some little fragments so debased and vitiating in places that they seemed abortive and as if they had been torn from their authors hands by force on account of which my lady since the occasion has offered i have been minded to present all these examples with the object of exhorting all those who treasure books and keep them sequestered in their sanctuaries and cabinets to henceforth publish them and bring them to light not only so that they may not keep back and bury the glory of their ancestors but also that they may not deprive their descendants of the Prophet and pleasure which they might derive from the labor of others in regard to myself I will set forth more amply in the notice which I will give to the reader the motive that induced me to put my hand to the work of the present author who has no need of trumpet and herald to exalt and magnify her greatness in as much as there is no human eloquence that could portray her more forcibly than she has portrayed herself by the celestial strokes of her own brush footnote in the French text West Chu invariably refers to the author as a personage of the masculine sex with the evident object of concealing the real authorship of the work feminine pronouns have however been substituted in the translation as it is Queen Margaret who is referred to editor and footnote I mean by her other writings in which she has so well expressed the sincerity of her doctrines the vivacity of her faith and the uprightness of her morals that the most learned man who reigned in her time were not ashamed to call her a prodigy and miracle of nature and albeit that heaven jealous of our welfare has snatched her from this mortal habitation yet her virtues rendered her so admirable and so engraved her in the memory of everyone that the injury and lapse of time cannot efface her from it for we shall cease lessly mourn and lament for her like an tamika's the Greek poet wept for Lhasa dakea his wife with sad versus and delicate allergies which describe and reveal her virtues and merits therefore my lady as this work is about to be exposed to the doubtful judgement of so many thousands of men may it please you to take it under your protection and into your safekeeping for whereas you are the natural and legitimate heiress of all the excellences ornaments and virtues which enriched the author while she adorned by her presence the pur prize of the earth and which now by some marvelous ray of divinity live and display themselves in you it is not possible that you should be defrauded of the fruit of the labor which justly belongs to you and for which the whole universe will be indebted to you now that it comes forth into the light under the resplendent shelter of your divine and heroic virtues may it therefore please you my lady to graciously accept of this little offering as an eternal proof of my obedience and most humble devotion to your greatness pending a more important sacrifice which I prepare for the future Peter West Jew surnamed lone a to the reader footnote this notice follows the dedicatory preface in the addition of 1558 and footnote gentle reader I can tell thee verily and with good right assert even prove by witnesses worthy of belief when this work was presented to me that I might fulfill the office of a sponge and cleanse it of a multitude of manifest errors that were found in a copy written by hand I was only requested to take out or copy eighteen or twenty of the more notable tales reserving myself to complete the rest at a more convenient season and at greater leisure however as men are fond of novelties I was solicited with very pressing requests to pursue my point to which I consented rather by reason of the importunity than of my own will and my enterprise was conducted in such fashion that so as not to show myself in any wise disobedient I added some more tales to which again others have since been adjoined in regard to myself I can assure thee that it would have been less difficult for me to build the whole edifice anew than to mutilate it in several places change innovate add and suppress it in others but I was almost perforce compelled to give it a new form which I have done partly for the requirements and the adornment of the stories partly to conform to the times and the in Felicity of our century when most human things are so accelerated that there is no work however well digested polished and filed but it is badly interpreted and slandered by the malice of fastidious persons take therefore in good part our hasty labour and be not too close a sensor of another's work until thou hast examined thine own to the most illustrious and virtuous princess Madame jane de Foix queen of Navarre clothe grew che her very humble servant presents salutation and wishes of felicity footnote this preface was inserted in the Edition issued in 1559 by code Boucher who gave the title of hep tamarin to Queen Margaret's tales and footnote I would not have interfered madam to present you with this book of the tales of the late Queen your mother if the first edition had not omitted or concealed her name and almost entirely changed its form to such a point that many did not recognize it on which account to render it worthy of its author I as soon as it was divulged gathered together from all sides the copies I could collect of it written by hand verifying them by my copy and acting in such wise that I arranged the book in the real order in which she had drawn it up then with the permission of the king and your consent it was sent to the press to be published such as it should be concerning it I am reminded of what count Balthazar says of boccaccio in the preface to his courtier footnote the libro del courtesan au by count baldassare castiglione was the nobleman's Varde bakhoum of the period first published at venice in 1528 it was translated into french in 1537 by J Colin secretary to Francis the first editor and footnote that what he had done by way of pastime namely his de Cameron had brought him more honor than all his other works in Latin or Tuscan which he esteemed the most serious thus the Queen the true ornament of our century from whom you do not derogate in the love and knowledge of good letters while amusing herself with the acts of human life has left such beauteous instructions that there is no one who does not find matter of erudition in them and indeed according to all good judgment she has surpassed Boccaccio in the beautiful discourses which she composes upon each of her tales for which she deserves praise not only over the most excellent ladies but also among the most learned man four of the three styles of oration described by cicero she has chosen the simple one similar to that of Terrence in Latin which to everyone seems very easy to imitate though it is anything but that to him who tries it it is true that such a present will not be new to you and that you will only recognize in it the maternal inheritance however I feel assured that you will receive it favorably at seeing it in this second impression restored to its original state for according to what I have heard the first displeased you not that he who put his hand to it was not a learned man or did not take trouble indeed it is easy to believe that he was not minded to disguise it thus without some reason nevertheless his wart has proved unpleased I present it to you then madam not that I pretend to any share in it but only as having unmasked it to restore it to you in its natural state it is for your royal greatness to favor it since it proceeds from your illustrious house where of it bears the mark upon the front which will serve it as a safe conduct throughout the world and render it welcome among good company as for myself recognizing the honor that you will do me in receiving from my hand the work thus restored to its right state I shall ever feel obliged to render you most humble duty end of section 7 section 8 of the Tamron of the tales of Margaret queen of Navarre vol 1 this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by on ocimum that Tamron of the tales of Margaret queen of Navarre volume 1 by Margaret of Navarre translated by George Sainsbury prologue on the first day of September when the baths in the Pyrenees Mountains begin to be possessed of their virtue there were at those of cuttack many persons as one of France as was Spain some to drink the water others to bathe in it and again others to make trial of the mud all these being remedies so marvelous that persons despaired of by the doctors return thence wholly cured my purpose is not to speak to you of the situation or virtue of the set baths but only to set forth as much as relates to the matter of which I desire to write all the sick persons continued at the baths for more than three weeks until by the amendment in their condition they perceived that they might return home again but while they were preparing to do so there fell such extraordinary rains that it seemed as though God had forgotten the promise he made to Noah never to destroy the world with water again for every cottage and every lodging in cutter head was so flooded with water that it was no longer possible to continue there there who had come from the side of Spain returned thither across the mountains as best they could and such of them must knew whether the roads led fared best in making their escape the French lords and ladies thought to return to tarp as easily as they had come but they found the streamlets so deep as to be scarcely affordable when they came to pass over the Pyrenees gave which at the time of their former passage had been less than two feet in death they found it so broad and Swift that they turned aside to seek for the bridges but these being only of wood had been swept away by the turbulence of the water then certain of the company thought to stem the fools of the current by crossing in a body but they were quickly carried away and the others who had been about to follow lost all inclination to do so accordingly they separated as much because they were not all of one mind as to find some other way some crossed over the mountains and passing through Aragon came to the county of ozium and thence to Narbonne whilst others made straight for Barcelona going thence by see some to Marseilles and others to aid Mart but a widowed lady of long experience named Wasi resolved to lay aside all fear of bad roads and to betake herself to Our Lady of Sirhan's she was not indeed so superstitious as to think that the glorious virgin would leave her seat at her son's right hand to come and dwell in a desolate country but she was desirous to see the hallowed spot of which had so often heard and further she was sure that if there were a means of escaping from a danger the monks would certainly find it out at last she arrived after passing through places so strange and so difficult in the going up and coming down that in spite of her years and wait she had perforce gone most the way on foot but the most piteous thing was that the greater part of her servants and horses were left dead on the way and shepherd one man and one woman with her on arriving at sounds where she was charitably received by the monks there are also among the French two gentlemen who had gone to the baths rather that they might be in the company of the ladies whose lovers they were than because of any failure in their health these gentlemen seeing that the company was departing and that the husbands of our ladies were taking them away resolved to follow them at a distance without making their design known to anyone but one evening while the two married gentlemen and their wives were in the house of one who was more of a robber than a peasant the two lovers who were lodged in a farmhouse heart by heard about midnight a great uproar they got up together with their serving men and inquired what this tumult meant the poor man in great fear told them that it was caused by certain evil doers who were come to share the spoil which was in the house of her fellow bended thereupon the gentleman immediately took their arms and with their serving men set forth to succor the ladies esteeming it a happier thing to die for them than to outlive them when they reached the house they found the first door broken through and the two gentlemen with their servants defending themselves valiantly but in as much as they were outnumbered by the robbers and were also solely wounded they were beginning to fall back having already lost many of their servants the two gentlemen looking in that the windows perceived the ladies shrieking and sobbing so bitterly that their hearts swelled with pity and love at the sight and like two enraged bears coming down from the mountains they fell upon the bandits with such fury that many of them were slain while the remainder unwilling to await their onset fled to a hiding place which was known to them when the gentlemen had worse at these rogues and had slain the host himself among the rest they heard that the man's wife was even worse than her husband and they therefore sent her after him with a sword thrust then they entered a lower room where they found one of the married gentlemen on the point of death the other received no hurt saved that his clothes were all pierced with thrusts and that his sword was broken into the poor gentleman perceiving what help the two had afforded him embraced and thanked them and besought him not to abandon him which was to them a very agreeable request when they had buried the death gentleman and had comforted his wife as well as they were able they took the road which God set before them not knowing whether they were going if it pleases you to know the names of the three gentlemen the married one was called hare Khan and his wife Parliament the name of the widow being long darling of the two lovers one was called degussa and the other Safra dawn after having been the whole day on horseback towards evening they described a belfry with a with toil and trouble they made the best of their way and on their arrival were kindly received by the abbot and the monks the Abbey is called sin servo the abbot who came of an ancient line lodged them honorably and when taking them to their apartments inquired of them concerning their adventures when he had heard the truth he told him that others had fared as badly as they for in one of his rooms he had two ladies who had escaped alike danger or perchance a greater and as much as they had had to do with beasts and not with men half a league on this side of parish eat the poor ladies had met with a bear coming down from the mountain before whom they had flecked with such speed that their horses fell dead under them at the Abbey gates further two of their women who arrived a long time afterwards had made report that the bear had killed all the serving men then the two ladies in the three gentlemen entered the room where these unhappy travelers were and found them weeping they recognised them to be no more feed and Ennis wheat whereupon they all embraced and recounted what had befallen them at the exhortation zuv the good Abbot they began to take comfort in having found one another again and in the morning they hurt masse with much devotion praising God for the perils from which they are escaped while they were all at mass that came into the church a man clad only in a shirt fleeing as though he were pursued and crying out for aid forthwith here come and the other gentleman went to meet him to see what the affair might mean and perceived two men behind him with drawn swords these on seeing so great a company sought to fly but they were hotly pursued by hecka and his companions and so lost their lives when he came back he found that the man in this shirt was one of his companions named Gabriel who related to them how while he was in bed at a farmhouse near parish sheet three men came upstairs and how he although he was in his shirt and had no other weapon but his sword had stretched one of them on the ground mortally wounded while the other two were occupied in raising their companion he perceiving himself to be naked and the others aren't we thought him that he could not outdo them except it were by flight as being the least encumbered with clothes and so he had escaped and for this he praised God and those who had advanced him when they had heard Mass and a dined they sent to see if it was possible to cross the river gaff and on learning that it was not they were in great dismay however the abbot urgently entreated them to stay with him until the water had abated and they agreed to remain for that day in the evening as they were going to bed there arrived an aged monk who was one to come in September of every year to Our Lady of Sirhan's they inquired of him concerning his journey and he told them that on account of the floods he had come over the mountains and by the worst roads he had ever known on the way he had seen a very pitiful sight he had met a gentleman named Simon toe who wear advise long waiting for the to subside and trusting to goodness of his horse had tried to force a passage and had placed all his servants round about him to break the falls of the current but when they were in the midst of the stream those who were the worst mounted were swept away horses and Men down the stream and were never seen again the gentleman finding himself alone turned his hose to go back but before he could reach the bank his hole's sank under him nevertheless God willed that this should happen so close to the bank that the gentleman was able by dragging himself on all fours and not without swallowing a great deal of water to scramble out onto the hard stones though he was then so weak and weary that he could not stand upright by good fortune a shepherd bringing back his sheep but even found him seated among the stones wet to the skin and said not only for himself but on account of his servants whom we had seen perish before his eyes the Shepherd who understood his need even better from his appearance than from his speech took him by the hand and led him to his humble dwelling where he kindled some and so dried him in the best way that he could the same evening God led thither this good monk who showed him the road to Our Lady of Sirhan's assuring him that he would be better lodged there than anywhere else and would there find an aided widow named Wasi who'd been as unfortunate as himself when all the company heard tell of the good lady was he and the gentle Knight seemed on – they were exceedingly glad and praised the Creator who content with the sacrifice of serving folk had preserved their masters and mistresses and more than all the rest that Parliament give heart he praised the God for Simone too had long been her devoted lover then they made diligent inquiry concerning the road to saloons and although the good old man declared it to be very difficult they were not to be debarred from attempting to proceed thither that very day they set forth well furnished with all that was needful for the abbot provided them with wine and abundant victuals and with willing companions to lead them safely over the mountains these they crossed more often on foot than on horseback and after much toil and sweat came to Our Lady of Sales here the abbot although somewhat evilly disposed there's not deny them lodging for fear of the Lord of Baron who as he was aware held them in high esteem being a true hypocrite he showed them as fairer countenance as he could and took them to see the lady was he and the gentle Knight seemed unto the joyfulness of all this company who had been thus miraculously brought together was so great that the night seemed showed to them while praising God in the church for the goodness that he had shown to them when towards morning they had taken a little rest they all went to hear Mass and receive the Holy Sacrament of fellowship in which all Christians are joined together as one imploring him who of his mercy at thus United them that he would further their journey to his glory after they are dined they sent to learn whether the waters were at all evaded and found that on the country they were rather increased and could not be crossed with safety for a long time to come they therefore determined to make a bridge resting on two rocks which come very close together and where there are still planks for those foot passengers who coming from a level wish to avoid crossing at the fold the abbot was well pleased that they should make this outlay to the end that the number of pilgrims might be increased and he furnished them with workmen though he was to ever Isha's to give them a single farthing the workman declared that they could not finish the bridge in less than ten or twelve days and all the company both ladies and gentlemen began to grow weary but Parliament who was Helen's wife and was never idle or melancholy asked leave of her husband to speak and said to the age at lady was sea I'm surprised madam that you who have so much experience and now fill the place of mother to all of us women do not devise some pastime to relieve the weariness we shall feel during our long stay for if we have not some Pleasant and virtuous occupation we shall be in danger of falling ill nay are at the young widow long Sharlene worse than that we shall become ill-tempered which is an incurable disease for there is not one among us but has cause to be exceeding downcast having regard to our several losses and a sweet laughing replied everyone has not lost her husband like you and the laws of servants need not bring despair since others may readily be found nevertheless I too am of opinion that we should have some pleasant exercise with which to wile away the time for otherwise we shall be dead by tomorrow all the gentlemen agreed with what these lady said and that was he to tell them what they should do my children she replied you asked me for something which I find very difficult to teach you namely a pastime that may deliver you from your weariness I have sold for such a remedy all my life and I've never found that one which is the reading of the Holy Scriptures in them the mind may find that true and perfect joy from which repose and bodily health proceed if you would know by what means I continue so blithe and healthy in my old age it is because on rising I immediately take up the Holy Scriptures and read therein and so perceive and contemplate the goodness of God who sent his son into the world to proclaim to us the sacred word and glad tidings by which he promises the remission of all sins and a satisfaction of all deaths by the gift that he has made us of his love passion and merits the thought of this gives me such joy that I take my shelter and in all humility sing with my heart and utter with my lips the sweets and canticles which the holy spirit put into the heart of david and of other writers and so acceptable is the contentment that this brings to me that any evils which maybe fool me during the day I look upon as blessings seeing that I have in my heart through faith him who has borne them all for me in the same way before supper I retired to feed my soul by reading and then in the evening I called to mind all I have done during the past day in order that I may ask forgiveness for my sins thank him for His mercies and feeling safe from all harm take my rest in his love fear and peace this my children is the pastime I have long practiced after making trial of all others and finding a nun contentment of spirit I believe that if you give an hour every morning to reading and then offer up devout prayers during Mass you will find in this lonely place all the beauty that any town could afford one who knows God sees all things fair in him and without him everything seems uncomely wherefore I pray you accept my advice if you would live in gladness then here come took up the Disco's and said those madam who have read the Holy Scriptures as I believe we all have done will acknowledge that what you have said is true you must however consider that we are not yet so mortified that we have not need of some pastime and bodily exercise when we are at home we have the chase and Hawking which cause us to lay aside a thousand foolish thoughts and the ladies have their household cares their work and sometimes the dance in all which they find honorable exercise so speaking on behalf of the men I propose that you who are the oldest readers in the morning about the life that was led by our Lord Jesus Christ and the great and wonderful works that he did for us and that between dinner and Vespers we choose some pastime that shall be pleasant to the body and yet not hurtful to the soul in this way we shall pass the day cheerfully the lady was see replied that shipping at pains to forget every description of worldly vanity and she therefore feared that she should succeed but ill and the choice of such an entertainment the matter must be decided by the majority of opinions and she begged here come the set forth his own first for my part said he if I thought that the past time I should choose would be as agreeable to the company as to myself my opinion would soon be given for the present however I withhold and will abide by what the rest shall say his wife Parliament thinking he referred to her began to blush and half an anger and half laughing replied perhaps here come she who you think would find it most dull might readily find means of compensation had she a mind for it but let us leave aside a pastime in which only two can share and speak of one that shall be common to all since my wife has understood the meaning of my words so well said have gone to all the ladies and a private pastime is not to her liking I think she will be better able than anyone else to name one that all may enjoy and I herewith give in to her opinion having no other of my own to this all the company agreed Parliament perceiving that it had fallen to her to decide spoke as follows did I find myself as capable as the ancients who invented the Arts I should devise some sport or pastime in fulfillment of the charge you lay upon me but knowing as I do my knowledge and capacity which are scarcely able to recall the worthy performances of others I shall think myself happy if I can follow closely such as have already satisfied your request among the rest I think there's not one of you who has not read that hundred tales of boccaccio lately translated from the Italian into French so highly were these thought of by King Francis first of that name Monsignor the dopher madam the droopiness Madame Margaret that could peccato have only hurt them from the place where he lay the praise of such illustrious persons would have raised him from the dead now I heard not long since that the two ladies I've mentioned together with several others of the court determined to do like Boccaccio with however one exception they would not write any story that was not a true one and the sad ladies and monsignor the door fell with them and it took to tell ten stories each and assemble in all ten persons from among those whom they thought the most capable of relating something such that studied and where people of letters were accepted for Monseigneur luffa would not allow of their art being brought in fearing lest the flowers of rhetoric should in some wise prove injurious to the truth of the tales but the weighty affairs in which the King had engaged the peace between him and the King of England the bringing to bed of the dough fineness and many other matters of a nature to engross the whole court calls the enterprise to be entirely forgotten by reason however of our now great leisure it can be accomplished in ten days whilst we wait for our bridge to be finished if it so pleased you we might go every day from noon till four of the clock into yonder Pleasant meadow beside the river Gough the trees there are so leafy that the Sun can neither penetrate the shade nor change the coolness to heat sitting there at our ease we might each one tell a story of something we have ourselves seen or heard related by one worthy of belief at the end of ten days we shall have completed the hundred and if God wills it that our work be found worthy in the eyes of the lords and ladies I've mentioned we will honor our return from this journey present them with it in lieu of images and Paternoster and feeling assured that they will hold this to be a more pleasing gift if however anyone can devise some plan more agreeable than mine I will fool in with his opinion all the company replied that it was not possible to give better advice and they had waited the morning and impatient in order to begin thus they spent that day joyously reminding one another of what they had seen in their time as soon as the morning was come they went to the room of Madame was he whom they found already at her prayers they listened to her reading for a full hour then piously heard Mass and afterwards went to dinner at 10 o'clock after dinner each one withdrew to his chamber and did what he had to do according to their plan at noon they failed not to return to the meadow which was so fair and pleasant that it would need a Boccaccio to describe it as it really was suffice to say that the Ferrer was never seen when the company were all seated on the green grass which was so fine and soft that they needed neither cushion nor carpet Simone toe commenced by saying which of us shall begin before the others since you were the first to speak replied HECO it is reasonable that you should rule us for in sport we are all equal would to God said Simone toe I had no worse fortune in this world and to be able to rule all the company present on hearing this Parliament who well knew what it meant began to cough here come therefore did not perceive the color that came into her cheeks but told Simone toad to begin which he did as presently follows end of section 8 prologue

Heptameron of the Tales of Margaret, Queen of Navarre, Vol. 1 | Marguerite of Navarre | 2/3

5: [00:00:00] – On the Heptameron – Part 1

6: [00:31:33] – On the Heptameron – Part 2

7: [01:04:05] – Dedications and Preface

8: [01:22:22] – Prologue

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