Cosmic connections: the Universe and You with Lawrence Krauss
Articles
30


This lecture is brought to you by Science and Cocktails and ECSJ2017/Danske Videnskabsjournalister/EUSJA. hi hi can you hear me okay well it’s
going to be hard to follow that that was really the summary of everything I
wanted to say but I’ll try it’s a real pleasure to be here this is an amazing
event an amazing venue I just flew in this afternoon and and this is waking me
up already so that’s good so I hope to have fun tonight and tell you a story
that’s that will change maybe a little bit of your perspective of the place in
the your place in the universe this by the way is the universe in case you
wondered this is a picture from the Hubble Space Telescope and every dot in
this image except for that one is a galaxy not a star there are a hundred
billion galaxies in the observable universe each containing 100 billion
stars and we’re on just one of them and even that is an amazing discovery I
wanted time to talk about that but a hundred years ago we thought there was
one galaxy in the universe we now know there are over a hundred billion and
that just gives a sense of how things are changing and every day we discover
new and amazing things about the universe and what I want to talk about
is how it’s not just out there how you’re connected to the universe in ways
you may never have imagined but I want to begin this story as a story so like
good stories I want to just say at the beginning it’s the best of times and by
that I mean that the Large Hadron Collider is operating in Geneva and has
not created a black hole that destroyed the world so that’s very good but at the
same time it’s the worst of times as we’ve seen in that last video and and
and the important thing about cosmology and science is it can take us away from
these local awful things because this too shall pass this is just a speck in a
cosmic history so as miserable as this may be it’s just a moment and so anyway
let me begin by taking you first to a connection that was that was talked
about in it’s in the video a little bit but maybe
put a little more content than just the fucking the the so I like art and it’s
great to see our here and it’s wonderful that there’s an artist doing this right
now even as I speak one of my favorite artists is a sculpture Rodin and I was
in the Rodin Museum in Paris once and I started to think about something I later
wrote a book about it about the fact that when you look at Brennan’s art that
they’re beautiful moments that are captured and and there’s a famous statue
that where dad has a kiss and I was looking at that and I think you’re
thinking that that kiss was immortalized in stone forever but of course it’s not
forever and the stone hasn’t been around forever the stone has only been around
for millions of years and I started to think about what is forever what’s
eternal is there anything that’s eternal and nothing is but but the closest thing
of course in some sense is our atoms and our atoms have been in a lot of
interesting places I have my cocktail here which unfortunately is empty and no
one has refilled it but in a case maybe that’d be a message that people I was
getting that one that bubbles if you want to bring me another the but my
mother used to tell me when I was a kid and I drank a glass of picked up a glass
she said don’t you you know don’t touch that you don’t know where it’s been and
she will be amazed by the real true story of every atom in your body because
every atom in your body as I say is it’s just been around on earth for
four-and-a-half billion years but but it’s been around a lot longer than that
and in fact the actual atoms have not been around since the beginning of time
in the beginning of the universe are only hydrogen atoms and and a little
helium and some lithium which is important for some of you I guess but
but but for the rest of us the carbon the nitrogen the oxygen is the important
stuff and that hasn’t been around for a long time and the first connection I
want to bring was your connection to the cosmos what
do you know is this one of the ones that bubbles okay okay good okay not the same
one but it’ll do it’s a little stronger okay
the talk may go on longer than I intended but um so this this is uh this
was the first thermonuclear explosion on earth it was the mic explosion in 1952
November 2nd that 7:00 in the morning I think and briefly of course it wasn’t
done as a science experiment it was done as an experiment to destroy things and
and and great okay here we go okay well I can have my work cut out for me
okay I’m not responsible for what I do after those okay so it destroyed a
Pacific atoll in a microsecond in this different thermonuclear explosion but
interestingly enough in that in that microsecond every element that was ever
existed in the universe was also created because thermonuclear explosions
involved nuclear fusion and that’s the process of power stars in the Sun and
that’s how your atoms came to you because the carbon the nitrogen and the
oxygen the iron was only created in the cores of stars it wasn’t created in the
Big Bang and the question is how did it get to your body and it got to your body
thanks to stars and stars that exploded this is uh this is an image from a
nearby galaxy about set about 70 million light years away and it’s a galaxy just
like our own if it were if this was a milky way we’d be sort of located sort
of there in a boring suburb not Christian or anything but but where the
earth is around and the Sun is around our galaxy and but this is another
galaxy and what you notice about this galaxy of 100 billion stars is maybe ten
billion stars in the center but you notice this bright star here and this
star is shining with the brightness of the entire center of that galaxy which
is surprising because there are 10 billion stars in there so the first
thought you might have is that this star is just
in our galaxy and it got in the way of the picture but that’s not true it’s a
star at the edge of that galaxy and it’s shining with the brightness of ten
billion stars why is that it’s a star that’s just exploded a supernova an
exploding star the the brightest cosmic fireworks anywhere when a star explodes
it shines brightly for about a month with the brightness of a hundred billion
stars and stars and their lives some of them as exploding stars and it’s
important for us that they do explode because if they didn’t we wouldn’t be
here because all the nuclear materials that are produced during the lifetime of
that star are then it sent out into space now we actually can observe
exploding stars fortunately for us stars don’t explode too often once every
hundred years per galaxy fortunately they explode however because
they didn’t we wouldn’t be here now how can we observe stars that they explode
only once every hundred years per galaxy the answer is the universe is a big and
old place and rare events happen all the time I’ll stand for you to finish that
picture and then I’ll move okay good anyway so once 400 years for galaxies
well there’s two ways we could study at first we could assign a graduate student
to each galaxy because a hundred years it’s about the right time for a PhD so
that’s okay and you know if the graduate student dies it’s okay because students
are very cheap so that we don’t need it but there’s another way and that is to
realize that okay because the universe is big and old these events are
happening all the time in tonight you won’t be able to see if it’s cloudy but
if it ever gets clear in Copenhagen at night you could you could take a small
hole with your hand and look up at the sky where they’re no stars and take a
hole that big and with the largest telescopes in the world we have in chile
if you looked up in that dark spot you’d see about a hundred thousand galaxies in
that little region and that means if you look at a hundred thousand galaxies in a
given night and you work things out once every
hundred years for Galaxy you’ll see a few stars explode and astronomers do
that they apply for telescope time and they look out and if they can see enough
galaxies on a given night they’ll always see a star explode and we can study
those stars and we’ve been able to feed learn about them and we’ve been able to
use them to study the universe that’s in some sense a different lecture but these
stars when they die they create other star systems this was by the way the
most recent supernova that we’ve seen not in our galaxy because the last
supernova that was seen in our galaxy was about 400 years ago and amazingly
the reason for that is because most of our galaxy is dust and we can’t see the
exploding stars in our galaxy they get obscured by dust but if we look at other
galaxies we can see them but this one was in a neighboring galaxy the Large
Magellanic Clouds which is you can see in the southern hemisphere and this star
exploded in February 1987 and there are other stars that have exploded this is
the Crab Nebula there was a star that exploded about a thousand years ago that
was seen that could be seen during the daylight on earth when the star explodes
in our galaxy and it’s interesting to me to think about this because this was in
1060 something I forget the exact year but there’s no records in Europe of That
star exploding yet in China it was there was a record Chinese astrologers saw a
guest star in the sky and reported it to the Emperor and said it brought good
tidings because of course that’s what they want Emperor wanted to hear which
is what religion is all about and um and but it wasn’t recorded all in Europe and
I think one of the reasons was also religion frankly because this the
conventional wisdom in the in the Christian Church was that the sky was
was not only God’s creation but it was immovable and unchangeable and if you
said you saw something new in the sky you’d likely be burned at the stake so
it’s not too surprising that it was never reported here but this was a
nearby supernova but but interesting enough here’s that supernova
1987 20 years later and you can begin to see a ring around and I think I’ll
expand it this is the material that’s being thrown up by this star all the
carbide the nitrogen and the oxygen the iron moving at about 10,000 kilometers
per second and when stars explode they compress the gas around them and cause
it to shine but they can also actually cause other stars to be created this is
not a painting this is an actual image of a stellar nursery in our galaxy where
after a supernova goes off it compresses the gas and other stars form and about
five billion years ago a supernova went off in our region of
the galaxy compressing the gas and causing our Sun what is now our Sun and
solar system to eventually form 4.5 billion years ago and the material from
that supernova not only made became part of the Sun but it eventually became part
of the earth and all the other planets and every atom in your body as said in
that video but it’s true and it’s the most poetic thing I know about the
universe every atom in your body has been inside a star that exploded not
just one star many stars because because in order to make up enough carbon and
nitrogen oxygen lots of stars had to explode 200 million stars in our galaxy
exploded before the thumb form and so the atoms in your in your body have been
part and experienced the most violent thing in the universe and the atoms in
your left hand could have come from a different star than your right hand but
you were literally star children and I think that’s a wonderful way to begin
this because you have a connection an intimate connection to the cosmos it’s
not just out there it’s in your bodies and your bodies provide us living
histories of the history of the universe you like that okay folks you can applaud
for that so I wanted so we are we are we come
from the stars but I want to come a little closer and I want to talk about
another connection that you have that you may not know about first of all this
is a picture take it a nice sunset it looks like it’s Los Angeles because
the sky is red some used to be pollution but it’s not that sunset happens have
been taken on this place here in Mars the Mars is interesting to us because
Mars is a dry planet now but it we think it originally had water as I’ll show you
and the ISTE question here is first of all we used to wonder where did the
water on earth come from earth is a water planet but when the earth formed
the temperature in the solar system in the region of the earth was about a
thousand degrees so it was hard for for water to waters a volatile material and
it turns out that most of if you work out we’re being bombarded by comets
asteroids meteorites every single day in one form or another and if you work out
over the history of the earth enough material has been transported to the
earth by comets to fill up all the words Earth’s oceans so we thought for a long
time that maybe that’s where the water comes from but it there’s a problem if
you measure the content of the water in in comets and measure what’s called the
isotopic abundance the abundance of hydrogen and the next lightest or the
heavy hydrogen called deuterium it’s slightly different in the Comets than it
is in the oceans on earth so we didn’t quite know where the water came from
maybe it was embedded in the earth originally to understand that we
actually look at Mars because Mars unlike the earth doesn’t have plate
tectonics it doesn’t it doesn’t have volcanic activity most of the material
on the surface the earth now wasn’t always there because the earth is
churning and that material goes inside and outside so there are very few very
old rocks on earth but in Mars the material that’s there has been there
since essentially the formation the planet and if we could find water on
Mars and measure its abundance we could learn about the
water on earth but in the process of that we learned something interesting
the question is where can you learn go to find rocks from Mars you don’t have
to go to Mars you go to a place that looks like Mars that’s this place this
is Antarctica the South Pole now why would you want to go to the South Pole
to look for rocks from Mars anyone have an answer what I’m sure I’m getting lots
of good answers but I can’t hear them all but okay it’s that the point is it’s
not very sophisticated notice that this is white okay and so it turns out
material gets kicked out of Mars by meteors and comets and some of it falls
to earth and some of it falls to earth here on this part of the planet but if
you find a rock out there it’s not very surprising but if you’re in Antarctica
and you are Nazca do I’m near the South Pole and you’re going along the ice and
you see a rock there’s only one place it can come from up there so that’s why we
look for meteorites and Antarctica it’s not because of anything sophisticated
they’re just easy to find anyone could do it I was going to go do it and if
they wanted me to do it anyone can do it and interesting enough in this area the
Allan Hills of Antarctica about 30 years ago this particular rock was found on
the surface of the ice and it was ooh and it turned out to have the abundance
have the right elemental abundance that we know it came
from Mars and then it caused a great great furor about 20 years ago when it
was cut into small pieces and put in an electron micrograph and when it would
that was done these things were seen these small structures and President
Clinton at the time had a press conference because these look just like
the oldest fossils of life here on earth and it was our thought that
maybe this was evidence of life on Mars now it turns out in the interim we’ve
been able to show that that’s not the case that these structures are actually
much smaller than the earliest fossils of life on Earth scene gotten from
Australia as it turns out and we and we think that you can create these kind of
structures without biological systems but it but we’ve realized in the interim
something very important all throughout the earth we found forms of life that
exist in extreme environments they’re called extremophiles and they can exist
in boiling water and acid but interestingly enough those microbes can
live in rocks for a long time even in dry and extreme environments that means
that if there were microbes on Mars embedded in rocks they could easily
survive the eight or nine month voyage through space so they got to the earth
and that means that no planet is an island it means if there’s life in one
place in the solar system it’s going to pollute the rest of the solar system at
least all the accessible places in the solar system so the interesting question
is this life evolved on earth and I can still use that word especially since
we’re not in the United States life evolved on earth about as soon as the
laws of physics allowed about 500 million years after the year formed I’ll
have a ways to go anyway because before that we were being bombarded by comets
and asteroids and the oceans were being evaporated but then Jupiter formed and
basically ate up most of that material and things subsided but life formed on
Earth extremely quickly and the question is that’s a surprise to us how did life
originate on earth we don’t like know the answer although we’re getting close
but maybe it didn’t originate in earth maybe it originated on Mars and was
transported to her because early on and hit like in Mars it was hot and wet so
if you want to know what a Martian looks like just look in the mirror
perhaps now we don’t know if that’s the answer but interesting enough we’ve
discovered as we’ve explored Mars and the surface of Mars evidence of with our
Rovers which are a wonderful way to explore the planet in my opinion better
than humans but we can talk about that but we’ve discovered evidence of even
today water flows systems that look like there is actually liquid water
today’s still on Mars periodically and that’s incredibly exciting because not
only will be able to study that water but it gives us hope that maybe we’ll
find evidence of extinct or maybe extent life-forms on Mars but we don’t have to
go to Mars we can go to other the moons of Jupiter and Saturn this is a
Enceladus a large block of ice which 20 years ago we just thought was a
perfectly smooth white snowball but we’ve now discovered with the Cassini
satellite the Cassini mission which explored Saturn Enceladus is a moon of
Saturn that the ice isn’t smooth at all and the fact there are water flumes and
plumes that come up water volcanoes if you want because the gravitational pull
of Saturn is enough to produce tidal forces that heat up inside Enceladus so
Enceladus and IO are two ice moons that we now understand are not just dykes
moons inside of them is a water ocean heated by the gravitational force of the
big planets they’re around and when when when the Cassini satellite flew through
these detected would look like maybe organic materials and this material has
been protected by a thick wall of ice maybe several kilometers thick and then
there may be an ocean underneath it’s a hundred kilometers deep and one of the
exciting things we’re going to do and maybe in the next two decades is send a
mission to either E or Enceladus to maybe explore the surface and ultimately
drill down and we may discover life here because all of the things that are
important for life on Earth water organic materials and sunlight are
prevalent not just here but everywhere in the universe we discovered organic
materials the basis of amino acids on comets so it could be that we’re not
only not alone in the universe but we’re not alone in the solar system now there
aren’t intelligent beings there but there could be microbes and if they’re
if there are life-forms inside of Enceladus those are exciting if we
discover life on Mars that could be our cousins because we’ve been sending
material back and forth by comets but if we discover life deep in the oceans of
Enceladus that material has been protected and that could be another
genesis of life and that would be very exciting because we find two independent
genesis of life in the in the in our own solar system
it means it’s everywhere in the universe but ultimately we are connected in one
way or another to life in our solar system so we are not just if we discover
life on mars as i say it’s our cousin so we’re not just connected to the stars
we’re connected to the other planets and we could be martians so that’s the next
cosmic connection i want to make so we’re connected to the stars we’re
connected to a potentially life on other planets but we’re connected to each
other in a way that you wouldn’t maybe not imagine I wouldn’t do an experiment
everyone I want everyone to take a deep breath and then hold it in okay one two
three take a deep breath hold it in you can’t laugh while you’re taking a
deep breath keep holding it keep holding it okay let it out there was no reason
for that I just wanted to see if you do it but but there sort of is every time
you breathe in your being connected to all of humanity and throughout history who’s this does anyone know this is
Julius Caesar that’s right the amazing thing is and it’s one of the things I
love to teach in an undergraduate physics class every time you take a
breath you’re breathing in atoms from the dying breath of Julius Caesar when
he said ed to Brutus every single time you breathe you’re
breathing in atoms from Julius Caesar’s dying breath it’s amazing but it’s true
his atoms of his breath were circulated throughout the atmosphere and because of
the processes that circulate things through the earth and the atmosphere and
life we can actually calculate that maybe 10 or 20 atoms of his dying breath
are in each of your breaths but that means not just fuel your Caesar
but that means everyone throughout human history people we think of as scary as
others are part of us they’re not just others they’re part of our bodies right
now okay good this is a great this is clearly resonates with people
who are stoned okay anyway but this is useful think of that think of this the
next time you breathe in but I mean I use it all the time I spend a lot of my
time I try when I can work which is increasingly rarely mostly on planes but
if I’m alone at night and I’m working and I’m not getting anything done which
is also usual I remember that each time I breathe in
I’m breathing in some atoms that Einstein breathed out when he put the
final dot on his general theory of relativity so this is wonderful you are
breathing in atoms from virtually almost everyone who ever lived the good people
and the bad people you’re real to breeding in atoms from Hitler when you
put the last note on what mine calm okay and speaking of what my mum said well I
guess I can say this inner so when you drink a glass of water or alcohol you’re
drinking in atoms excreted by every slimy thing that’s ever walked the earth
in particular and this is really interesting for some of you if you have
water take a drink right now or even alcohol take a drink right now
every time you drink a glass of water you’re drinking and in atoms from the
sweat of your parents during their coupling that created you okay I remember the American comedian WC
Fields I never said this before on a stage but this place it seems ok
I remember WC Fields used to say about water he said water I never drink it
fish fucking it and and now you know it’s true you’re drinking it when you
come in and every time here’s the yacht’s younger me this is Lucy who was
a wonderful ancestor of ours 3.2 million years ago after Australopithecus Lucy
who we found and every time I breathing in not breathing in atoms at Lucy
breathe out but it’s not just Lucy these are stromatolite these are these
are these are the earliest this is from Shark Bay Australia which you can see
here these are fossil remnants of the earliest organisms that produced oxygen
on earth the cyanobacteria that originally originally there was no
oxygen in the atmosphere the earth all the oxygen you breathe all the oxygen
you breathe was produced by the early organisms on life on Earth that’s one of
the reasons why when we look for life on other planets we’re going to look for
oxygen atmospheres which isn’t a guarantee of other life but I’d be a
strong signal because it’s important for life history of life on earth that there
was no free oxygen because oxygen is a poison it burns things and if there had
been all the organic materials on earth would have been oxidized early on but
they weren’t the life created the oxygen every way so these things puffed out
little bits of oxygen and over two billion years in the early history of
life on earth the oxygen abundance built up until life figured out how to use
oxygen by respiration so every time you breathe in you’re not just breathing in
battles from Julius Caesar and and and everyone else but also the atoms breathe
out by the stromatolite over two billion years you’re connected to everything
that’s ever lived on earth your connectr the Stars the planets and everything
that’s ever lived on earth okay and in fact when I talk about this about your
what you what you’re drinking when you drink in here’s another experiment you
can do take your finger and prick trick it and take a little bit of blood and go
out to the ocean and let it drop of your blood go in the ocean interestingly
enough if you come back a year later and take a spoonful of ocean water
we’ll be some atoms of your blood in it it gets distributed throughout the whole
ocean you are literate Kenton so this is a quote from Shakespeare that you
remember in Macbeth when they killed a king and he says will all great
Neptune’s ocean wash this blood clean from my hand no this my hand will rather
the multitudinous seas incarnadine in english that means that that i’ll turn
the book ocean’s red there’s too much blood on my hands and of course it’s
true every time you bleed if it goes in the oceans you’ll turn the oceans red in
a very small way so those connections to everything on earth are remarkable and
and totally unexpected I think and I hope that gives you a different
perspective of your place but I want to point out now I want to talk about a
different set of connections the kind of connections that relate you to things
that are esoteric the kind of physics I do is very esoteric and people say what
good is it and and and does it make a better toaster or a faster car it
doesn’t but it does help and I first began to think of this when I was stuck
in in Los Angeles but the same could be said for coming here so I can I flew in
at about 11 o’clock today from the United States and I came from the
airport to – well that’s the hotel I’m in but you shouldn’t know that anyway
and except for the beautiful women they should all know that now but anyway um
no and so I one uses GPS then the good-looking guys – I guess no I’m just
joking anyway um that’s the problem of drinking before speaking it’s really a
mistake but and the point is every time you use your GPS you’re using you’re
relying on remarkably esoteric laws of physics that you may not know so how
does GPS work GPS works because there is a network of satellites around the earth
and we use triangulation so these satellites are way above the earth and
what we do is if is when in when your transmitter is detected by two different
satellites those satellites calculate the time that it takes for the signal to
go from the saddle lights of the earth and back and from
that they can determine the distance to where you are and we have two of them or
three of them or four of them they can pinpoint your position sorry and that’s
why we use we need to have several satellites in view in order to use GPS
okay so those two satellites measure your relative the time it takes to get
from there to there and back and and then very carefully but they have to
have very accurate clocks to measure your position very accurately because
light goes about one meter every billionth of a second so if I want to
know your position to 10 meters accuracy say then I have to have a clock clocks
on those satellites that are accurate to 10 billions of a second atomic clocks
can achieve that kind of accuracy but we have to recognize that these satellites
are out there so light travels of 30 nanometers per 30 centimeters per
nanosecond that’s 30 centimeters every billion to the second now these
satellites are up and I’m going to use American units here I’m sorry but eight
thousand twelve thousand miles above the earth most of them and they’re traveling
around the earth at 8,000 miles per hour and this means that esoteric laws of
physics matter so to get accuracy of five ten to five 10 meters 20 to 30 nano
second accuracy now relativity tells us that if I’m moving with respect to you
my clock is thinking slowly with respect to you this is not observable on earth
most of the time but if I want to measure things with accuracy of
nanoseconds and things are moving in a thousand miles per hour I have to use
this and in fact special relativity that tells me that the ratio of the time of
two clocks depends upon this which is where this is the speed of the of the
clock and this is the speed of light normally because we move very small
slowly compared to the speed of light this is irrelevant but in this case it
isn’t it turns out that these clocks because they’re moving
on the earth very fast tick at a rate of seven microseconds per day more slowly
than clocks on earth but this isn’t the only effect Einstein also told us that
if I’m standing up here my clock is ticking at a different rate than your
clock because being at a different place in a gravitational field also means
clock it clocks tick at different rates and these clocks are up at 12,000 miles
above the earth so general relativity tells me if you plug things in that in
fact because these clocks are this high they’re ticking it turns out 45
microseconds per day faster than clocks on earth now this means that they go in
different directions that these clocks are ticking relative to each other and
relative to clocks on earth at a time difference of 38 microseconds per day
but 38 microseconds is 38,000 nanoseconds and that means if the makers
of GPS didn’t include the facts of the curvature of space and the effects of
special relativity things you’d never think you need to ever think about then
your GPS would lose accuracy in two minutes
in two minutes you’d be out by about a kilometer and so every day in order to
get here or anywhere you go in your cars and use GPS you’re relying on the fact
that space is curved this esoteric result from general relativity that is
remarkable so even if the most exotic aspects of physics creep in and change
our everyday lives now this isn’t this this this is meant
to hypnotize you take a drink while you’re doing it this hidden connection
the fact that you’re connected to a curved universe is even more it’s
something that that we’re using in physics nowadays in a different way not
only is space curved not only are clocks on these satellites taking a different
rate not only is my clock here ticking at a different rate than yours
there but every time I move around the stage I’m disturbing space because
Einstein told us that space and time respond to the presence of matter and
energy and when I move around and wave my arms like I often do I’m producing a
curvature of space that’s varying in time and in 1916 Einstein realized when
he wrote down general relativity that when I do this I’m producing a moving
disturbance and it causes a ripple in space when I shake my electric charge up
and down I produced a disturbance and electric and magnetic fields that is
responsible for everything in this room the lights I see those come from that
kind of shaking electromagnetic waves result when I shake charges up and down
and the electromagnet is light that’s how I see but Einstein showed us if I
shake am ass up and down I disturbed space I produce a disturbance and
curvature in space and just like a ripple on a pond that that disturbance
travels out in this case at the speed of light and what it means is every time I
do this I’m actually changing the space in this room and every and I’m producing
what we now call a gravitational wave and that means and there are tons of
gravitational waves going through this room right now and when a gravitational
wave goes through this room it much as if it went through this screen the
length of the room gets smaller in that direction and larger in that direction
and then smaller in that direction and larger in that direction and that’s
happening now those of you who’ve drunk a few of these notices right away but it
effect is so small that we don’t notice it why don’t we notice it because
gravity is the weakest force in nature it’s hard to believe that gravity is so
weak because we when you get up out of bed in the morning you feel it right
away but that’s all the atoms of the earth affecting a single atom in your
body but gravity is the weakest force and
and Richard Fineman gave an experiment to show how gret weak gravity is take a
friend maybe not a friend to the top of a high building push them off it takes
all of the atoms in the earth and their gravitational force to pull them all the
way to the ground and maybe a hundred meters if it’s a really high building
but electromagnetism stops them in a fraction of an inch they don’t even make
a dent in the concrete because the reason I don’t fall through this stage
is not that it’s solid it’s mostly empty space but the electric forces of the
electrons in my hand or in this case my feet are repelled by the electric forces
of the electrons in the in the stage so just the electrical forces of the
electrons in this stage are holding me up against the entire pull of the earth
gravity is so very weak and that means the gravitational waves I create are so
small you’d never be able to see them here’s a three-dimensional gravitational
wave moving through which looks nice but it doesn’t have any information but
those 3d images don’t but the point is if this is there we’d like to be able to
detect it if these ripples in space are occurring all the time
are they really happening or is this a figment of our imagination and what
amazes me is that we have built the most amazing machines to be able to detect
these ripples in space here’s the here is a machine the largest gravitational
wave detector in the world the LIGO the laser interferometric gravitational wave
observatory there’s two copies of this this is in Hanford Washington there’s
another one in Livingston Louisiana exactly the same and what these things
are are two arms two perpendicular arms each four kilometers long and if a
gravitational wave comes down from above what will happen is the length of this
arm will get a little bit smaller and the length of an arm will get a bit
longer and then the length and that’s then the length of this one will get
smaller and that will be longer so all you have to do is measure the length of
these two arms very carefully simple not so simple gravity is so weak that we
calculate if the most cataclysmic we can imagine happening in the universe
today the collision of two black holes solar mass black holes happening in our
galaxy or some distant galaxies happen to massive objects more massive than our
Sun colliding well they’ll produce a lot of gravitational waves it gives the more
intense the gravitational field around the object and the more catastrophic the
event the bigger the gravitational wave signal so we can look for two colliding
black holes solar mass black holes but the effect is still very small in fact
we can calculate that if two black holes collide in a distant galaxy two solar
mass black holes gravitational waves will be produced and they’ll change the
length of this arm relative to that arm fine amount we can calculate these
alarms are four kilometers long and in order to be able to detect this signal
we have to detect the fact that these gravitational waves will change the
length of this arm four kilometers long compared to the length of this arm by an
amount equal to one one thousandth the size of a proton
now that should amaze you one one-thousandth the size of a proton
what’s even more amazing is we can do it we can do it and then I’m not an
experimentalist and this is one of the reasons why because I never would have
figured you could do this and in fact it’s really hard to imagine that you can
do it because if a truck hits a pothole over here it produces a bigger signal
here so how can you how can you get rid of that while you build two detectors
one in Washington or one Louisiana and if a patient wave traveling at the speed
of light hits this detector and goes through the earth eight milliseconds
later it’ll go through the detector in Louisiana so what you look for is a
signal in this detector and exactly the same signal eight milliseconds later in
Louisiana and in September 15th I think 2015 we saw the first gravitational wave
ever discovered in the universe this is this is
the signal and it’s a signal of two black holes colliding in a galaxy 1.3
billion light-years away causing space to ripple and vibrate back and forth it
turns out with a frequency of about 300 cycles per second that means these two
objects these two solar mass black holes one was 36 times the mass of the Sun the
other is 29 times the mass of Sun they were orbiting each other a hundred times
a second before they climb – think about that – solar mass objects orbiting each
other a hundred times a second and what’s amazing is not just that we can
detect the signal but we needed not just the most sophisticated technology
available on earth because even the quantum mechanical motions of the
mirrors are bigger than one one thousandth of a size of proton so we
have to use what’s called quantum optics to overcome that but we have to use the
most sophisticated theory we can do because if you see a random bit of noise
how do you know it’s colliding black holes you have to have a expected signal
to compare it to and the mathematics of general relativity is very complicated
and we needed supercomputers and over the last 20 years we needed those
supercomputers only of two years ago did we have the technology in the experiment
in the theory and so this template sort of smoother line is the template of what
you’d expect if two black holes collided and we can compare the signal to the
template and we see it’s a beautiful thing and this was the signal seen in
hanford eight milliseconds later this was a signal Tina in Livingston and the
to fit exactly on top of one another and what we saw was a signal of two black
holes colliding 1.3 billion light-years away and I’ll show you the animation of
this it says not the visual this is an artist’s simulation but you can see when
these black holes are moving around they’re bending the space around them
and they’re causing the light around them to be perturbed so you’re actually
the stars behind them look like they’re moving because the space is curving and
this is a slowdown of the actual last two tenths of a second in the life of
this two black holes as they collide and merge to form a single black hole and
you watch in the last moment you’ll see space jiggle and that’s the generation
of gravitational waves there see it jiggle now that’s a signal we saw now
the amazing thing there’s two amazing things about this first that we saw but
secondly it was a it was a 36 solar mass black hole and a 20 million solar mass
black hole and they combined together to form one single black hole how massive
was that 36 plus 29 36 plus 29 anybody who said 65 put up your hands you said
65 put up your hands knows more than just you okay you said 65 wrong because
it’s amazing it turns out they form the black hole of
62 times the mass of the Sun three solar masses disappeared where did those three
solar masses go to into gravitational waves now that may not amaze you but it
should because our Sun is burning a hundred billion hydrogen bombs every
second to produce the light that we see and over the it’s turning mass and
energy e equals MC squared over the 10 billion light year lifetime of the Sun
less than 1% of the mass of the Sun will turn from matter to energy in two-tenths
of a second these objects turn three times the mass of the Sun into energy
that meant stirring that two-tenths of a second that object emitted more energy
than all the rest of the stars in the visible universe combined it’s amazing
that these things happen and we detected it now as amazing as that as these are
interesting gravitational waves but the gravitational waves that are interest to
me are going to be looked at by different machine this is at the South
Pole we’re looking for gravitational waves not from the collision of two
black holes but gravitational waves that connect us to the beginning of time we
think we’re here because an event that happened when the universe was a
millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth
of a second old when our universe expanded by a huge amount you know
someone’s trying to call me right now hold on let me just stop that okay we
think at that time in universe was a millionth of a billionth of a billionth
of a billionth of a second old our universe expanded by huge amount
puffed-up from the size of a single atom to the size of a basketball or soccer
ball if you’re here in Europe in a short instant now if two black holes colliding
produce gravitational waves if our entire universe expands like that it’ll
produce gravitational waves that are that are we hope we’ll be able to detect
one day and this is the machine we’re hoping to use to detect them among
others this is called the bicep detector it turns out that these leave and
imprints these gravitational waves we think leave an imprint in the microwave
background radiation that’s coming at us from the Big Bang that’s coming at us
from all directions that we measured first 30 years ago and I’ve now seen
more seriously in various other ways when we look out we see this radiation
coming at us from all directions we call it the cosmic microwave background
radiation that was emitted when the universe was about 300,000 years old
which is when it became transparent to radiation and we look out we have
pictures of the universe back at that time but embedded in those pictures may
be a signal of gravitational waves that have come at us from the beginning of
time and these kind of detectives we’re looking for them it turns out these
detectors are the South Pole they it’s not cold enough at the South Pole to use
them we have to send down liquid helium to use these detectors because it’s not
cold enough we send down that liquid helium in the summertime does anyone
know why when when it’s winter and Antarctic it turns out you can’t send
planes down there isn’t that amazing I when I first learned that I was shocked
we don’t send planes dance act our arctor in the wintertime I mean we can
go to the moon well that was faked but we can go down
to the depths of the ocean we can go ever but we don’t send planes Antarctic
in the wintertime that’s why this is one of my favorite images this is from the
bicep detector and it’s sub sunset something happens once a year at the
South Pole so it means if you take this picture you’re stuck there for the
winter okay just why this picture was taken by
a graduate student okay but it turns out that this detector and
others like it that are being built may allow us to detect gravitational waves
from the moment of creation which connecting us to the process of produced
ultimately all the stars and galaxies we see today
a process we call inflation and what’s really kind of interesting is that we
think that this process that caused our universe to explode in size actually
caused space to continue to explode in most other places our universe basically
was like a seed that condensed out of this rapidly expanding universe but that
expansion continues even today and that means there may be other universes being
created right now as other seeds collapsed on without a background
expansion and inflation happens then our universe isn’t unique there are many
universes out there and it turns out when you leave inflation the laws of
physics may change depending upon how you leave inflation and that means some
universes may form with a lot of galaxies some universes may form with no
galaxies some universes may form with just the right number of galaxies so it
could be that all of the physics the properties of our universe
are just one big cosmic accident that if that in a different universe with the
laws of physics would be different we wouldn’t be here that makes it sound
like the universe well it basically says the properties of the universe are are
the way they are because there are astronomers here to measure them that
sounds religious but it’s not it’s cosmic natural selection because it says
that our universe is one in which we could evolve it’d be fascinating to find
ourselves living in the universe in which we couldn’t evolve that would be a
worth a book or two but but no one be around to read it
and this idea of what’s called a multiverse when I first wrote a universe
from nothing five years ago was just a pure speculation based well-motivated
speculation unlike God but one that was pure
speculation metaphysics if you wish but what I find amazing is we’re on the
threshold of potentially being able to measure gravitational waves from
inflation which if we could measure them would tell us about that inflation
happened would allow us to probe that theory and see if indeed other universes
are being created not we wouldn’t be able to see them directly but we’d be
able to test the physics that created our universe and know indirectly that
those other universes are there just like over a hundred years ago we knew
atoms existed but we never thought we’d see them if this is true we’ll turn
metaphysics into physics will know indirectly that these other universes
exist and that we’re not only not alone in our universe but that our universe is
not unique and it amazes me to think that in my lifetime we may believe and
know that where our universe isn’t unique that we are in a sense connected
not just to other all the stars in our universe in any way but to other
universes by that act of inflation now this cosmic accident is similar I want
to end with another cosmic accident which is related to my new book in more
detail the greatest driver told so far relates to a fact that we are all here
by another cosmic accident there’s a bathhouse here and I wanted to go to it
but it’s going to be closed now so I can’t but let’s say you’re swimming in
water and you swim very fast fine let’s say I filled that swimming pool with
molasses well you wouldn’t want to get in first of all but if you did go in and
you tried to swim you’d swim much more slowly because the molasses would
produce much greater resistance well it turns out that we think that that’s why
we’re here that is an invisible field everywhere
throughout our universe that froze in the early history of our universe and
some of the particles in nature interact with that field so as they move along
they experience resistance and they act more massive those particles interact
more strongly with that field or more massive those are particles that
interact less strongly with that miel field are less massive and those that
don’t interact with the field at all are massless light doesn’t interact with
that field but at a fundamental level all the particles that make us up are
really massless they act like they have a mass because that field is there now
that sure sounds like religion right because what I said was there’s an
invisible field everywhere in the universe and it’s reason we’re here
and that would be religion but it’s not religion because we can detect it or we
can try and detect it how do we try and detect it perfectly in keeping with the
video at the beginning of this program cosmic sadomasochism we spanked the
vacuum we spanked it hard because it turns out in quantum physics if for
every field in nature is associated with a particle and if we take enough energy
and dump it into empty space in a single place we’ll will take that field and
we’ll kick real particles out of it and if we call that field the Higgs field
and we kick real particles out over we’ll call them Higgs particles so where
can we dump enough energy and empty space in a single point to kick out
Higgs particles how can you do that you create the most complicated machine ever
built the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva Switzerland you go to Geneva and
there’s the lake the fountain is over here if you land at the airport which is
right here which I did a little while ago you look out and you see just
countryside beautiful countryside but underneath the countryside is a tunnel
26 kilometers around and in that tunnel we accelerate particles at 99.999999 98
percent the speed of light in that direction and particles at 99.999999 9 8
percent the speed of light in that direction and we try and collide them
two places this is the French Swiss border right here they go around
thousands of times every second without passports
don’t tell Donald Trump will be upset but we then try and collide them in and
in fact July 4th is a big day in the United States for no real reason
but in no cosmic reason anyway but July 4th now has a cosmic reason for
celebrating because of July 4th 2012 the Large Hadron Collider reported 50 events
that walked like Higgs ah’s and quack like Higgs is and therefore we thought
were Higgs particles and in fact in the intervening 5 years all the data has
told us that they have exactly the properties of Higgs particles we
discovered that there’s an invisible field in the universe and that this
amazing story that we’re here because of that invisible field is really true I
mean it was so amazing that I was certain it was wrong I’d written three
papers which I had in my drawer waiting for it not to be discovered
so I could show it was wrong because I thought nature would find another way to
do it it seemed kind of slimy to have this invisible field everywhere but
that’s exactly the kind of invisible field that could have produced inflation
so it gives us further motivation to think that inflation happen but that
means that we are here by a truly cosmic accident if you look at in the winter
time in a window and look at the icicles on a window say save this icicle here
imagine that you were a civilization that evolved on that icicle that grew up
to that icicle to be physicist and they discovered the laws of physics are
different along the spine of the icicle then along the perpendicular direction
and they described those laws theologians would explain why that
direction was special why it was meant by God Wars will be fought over whether
it was that direction or that direction all of this would take on incredible
significance but seen from the outside we see it’s just an accident icicles can
form in all different directions it’s just an accident our existence here in
the universe is the same kind of accident if this Higgs field hadn’t
frozen the way it did in the early history of the universe and had frozen
in a different direction the forces and the laws of physics we feel would be
different and in fact we wouldn’t exist but imagine that physicists on this ice
crystal figure out that you know there’s nothing special about this direction
that all the sorts of different directions could exist and they figure
it out at 4:00 in the morning and it’s 6:00 in the morning the Sun rises and
the ice crystals melt and they go away that could be us because we’ve
discovered the Higgs field but we’ve also discovered given the properties of
that field we’ve measured it could be unstable it could melt in the future and
if it melts in the future then all the particles that now have masks will
become massless again and that means no structures will exist all the stars and
galaxies and everything that we feel connected to will disappear and that
could be our future don’t look get too nervous don’t sell your diamonds because
even if this were to happen and we’re not sure what happened it won’t happen
in a year or in a decade or in a million years or a billion years or a billion
billion years it’ll happen in the far future but in the far future the
universe could return to the state it was originally in one that was not in
which life as we now see it was not possible so those people think the
universe is designed for us it’s no more design for us than that direction is
significant we are a cosmic accident and that’s okay
that’s remarkable we should feel thankful the universe doesn’t isn’t any
more designed for us than it was designed for that crystal to exist in
that direction this idea of understanding that the universe is not
necessarily the way we wanted it to be its humanity and its best one of the
wonderful things about being here besides being with all of you and in
this amazing venue is this connection between art and music and science that’s
happening right here tonight because that’s the beauty of science it’s not
the technology I mean science creates technology but I almost think of it as
an unfortunate thing because the real beauty of science is the same as the
beauty of art music and literature what science does is change our perspective
of our place in the cosmos change our understanding of ourselves that’s what
we get when we read a good play or see a piece of art or hear a new piece of
music it’s forces us to reflect on ourselves in a
new way that’s the beauty and the force our beliefs to conform to the evidence
of reality instead of the other way around is wonderful to take cherished
beliefs and prove them wrong is wonderful because it means we’re
learning and that’s what makes civilization worth being called
civilization the fact that the universe isn’t designed for us has a long history
and I want to end by just going back to the person who first showed in the
context of life that the universe wasn’t designed for us Charles Darwin so one of
the most beautiful bits of science writing in all of science writing
history is the last paragraph of his origin of a species that reads as
follows there is grandeur in this view of life with its several powers having
been originally breathed into a few forms or into one and that what this
planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity from so simple
a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been and are
being evolved in that beautiful way he showed how from a simple beginning the
incredible diversity of life on earth could arise not by planning but by
natural selection bees aren’t designed to see the colours of flowers if they
didn’t see the colours of flowers they couldn’t reproduce they couldn’t get the
nectar and reproduce it’s so simple to see something that looks like it’s
designed the appearance of design can be an illusion and not just as it’s true
for life we now see that the even for the universe the appearance of design is
an illusion just get over it and but at the same time science changes
and scientists themselves are myopic and in 1863 he said in a letter to Joseph
Hooker it is mere rubbish thinking at present of the origin of life one might
as well think of the origin of matter now in 1863 that was garbage but I get
paid to do it now because things have changed because the greatest story ever
told has gotten better because we keep opening our eyes to the universe we keep
getting surprised by the universe and we’ll keep on getting surprised by the
universe and being human will continue to be more interesting but only if we
keep our eyes open only if we’re willing to keep asking
questions and stop if we stop asking questions
if we’re afraid of what we’ll learn if we’re afraid of others
all of that will stop and while it’s an issue in my country I think it’s an
issue more generally I am concerned in the current world about this fear of the
unknown of this fear of others about this fear of what science may tell us
and that people would rather bury their heads in the sand and not support not
just science but art music and literature and the response to that is
the best response to that I know is by this guy Robert Wilson
who is the first director of the first large accelerator in the United States
the first really big accelerator the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in
the 1960s he was asked by Congress will that accelerator aid in the defense of
the nation and he said no sir I don’t believe so it is only to do with respect
with what you regard one another the dignity of men our love of culture it
has to do with our Weaver good painters good sculptors great poets I mean all
the things we really venerate in our country and our patriotic about or
should it has nothing to do directly with defending our country except to
make it worth defending and that you can applaud to that because we’ve dead now
but it’s a wonderful audience that is why that is why we can’t afford to stop
supporting curiosity-driven science research we can’t afford to stop
supporting art music and literature my country the current budget there’s huge
cuts in all of that and the money is going to build a wall to keep us out
from invisible hordes but what makes the United States make great let’s make
Denmark great what makes the world worth living in is not the walls we build are
the arms we sell but the questions we ask and our willingness to keep open
eyes and look at the universe so the universe may be miserable the universe
we may be insignificant but we shouldn’t be depressed because those connections
that we’ve made to the cosmos tell us about it amazing accident that brought
us here today nevertheless it allowed us to evolve brains that can ask questions
that can turn and ask questions about the early beginnings of the universe and
look out to the farthest elements of the cosmos so instead of being depressed you
should enjoy your brief moment in the Sun thank you very much thank you

Lol. OMG I love this. He is so funny when he's drinking. He needs to start having a couple drinks before all his speeches.

Krauss' incessant need to bring up Donald Trump in all his public talks now shows what a, truly, small man he actually is. He's mad because a grownup is finally in charge of the country. Isn't that right, Larry? Poor little snowflake…

"It (The Fermi Accelerator)  has nothing to do directly with defending our country… except to make it worth defending". Holy shit! PERFECT
By the way, the Fermi Paradox is cool. Enrico Fermi, in a late night discussion with other physicists asked a question about extraterrestrials. He said that if the universe had so many habitable planets… and life formed on some of them… the universe must be teeming with life… and there must be a lot of advanced civilizations. So where the f— are they? (emphasis mine lol). Why don't we detect them? Why don't they say hi?
The answer some of the physicists gave was that when a civilization evolved to where it could blow itself up… it did. That's why there aren't ETs visiting Earth and why we aren't detecting radio waves from them. 
We earthlings are now at that level of a so-called Type 1 civilization. We can destroy all that we have created – by nuclear war, global warming, plague, artificial intelligence, or some other catastrophe. RIGHT NOW we are at a crossroads. Never in human history have we had the ability to destroy almost all life on Earth. A full scale nuclear war would make life extinct except for cockroaches and some other hardy creatures. Will we avoid becoming a failed planet? I say its a 50-50 chance. What do your think?

HAHAHA what a Diluted mind can create!!! Atheist live in a fairy tale world in LALA land lol. ( P.H.D. James Tour Origins of Life ) give you only 100% scientific FACTS. With NO maybes, NO hypothesis, NO conjectures just the FACTS. So you can have only scientific FACT not any hypothesis or theory. So you can take it from there.

I've watched it 8 times now. Awesome is an understatement. He ties it all together. Definitely his finest talk ever.
Brilliant, how he ties in the arts with the cosmos at the end, and humiliates Trump without mentioning him.
I must meet him some day. I love this guy.

Dr. Krauss is easily one of my favorite persons. Been following him since 2008. I wish I could bother him in Phoenix, Arizona – that is a dream of mine. But, I'm satisfied with his lectures and publications. Please keep doing what you do! It fuels me and my influences. Thank you!

@feeatlastfeeatlast – I'M 15 MINUTES IN, AND HE HASN'T SAID ANYTHING
YET……BUT I PREDICT HE WILL REVEAL HIS BLOCK THAT HAS LED TO HIS
DOWNFALL BY THE END OF THIS, AND THEN I WILL DISMANTLE
HIM………..!!! – (SO THEN MAYBE GOD CAN START TO PUT HIM BACK
TOGETHER AGAIN)

30 MINUTES IN, AND HE STILL HASN'T SAID ANYTHING YET, BEYOND THE
ELEMENTARY, AND TRIVIAL, AND THE OBVIOUS, THIS IS BECOMING EMBARRASSING
FOR HIM, ONLY 35 MINUTES LEFT TO SAY SOMETHING, NOT SURE IF HE IS GONNA
GET THERE, BUT GIVING HIM THE BENEFIT OF THE DOUBT………. STILL
WAITING……..MAN, WHAT A LIGHTWEIGHT HE IS…………OK, HE JUST REVEALED HE IS PROBABLY GAY AND LIKES BATH HOUSES….. NOW HIS MOTIVATION TO AVOID GOD IS STARTING TO COME INTO FOCUS….

45 MINUTES IN, AND I AM BEGINNING TO THINK THIS IS A JOKE, I'M WONDERING IF I'M BEING PUNKED…………THIS IS ALL STUFF HE GOT FROM A PBS EVOLUTIONIST / ATHEIST DOC. – I'M BEGINNING TO THINK HE IS GETTING ALL DRESSED UP WITH NO PLACE TO GO………..I'M SENSING HE WILL GO ALL THE WAY TO HIS END THIS WAY, ALL FACTS / STATS, AND FIGURES, INTERESTING TO ONLY A THIRD GRADER FOR 5 MINUTES, WHO HAS NEVER HEARD THIS STUFF BEFORE………….. DON'T DRINK AND LECTURE KIDS, IT'S EMBARRASSING……

1 HOUR AND 5 MINUTES IN, GOTTA LOVE THESE GUYS, FOREVER LEARNING BUT NEVER COMING TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRUTH………..AND JUST AS I SUSPECTED HE WENT NO WHERE, BUT I MUST NOW FACE MY OWN DILEMMA AS A BIBLE BELIEVER, AND NOT TOTALLY FLUSH HIM DOWN THE TOILET, I MUST GENTLY STEER HIM IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION, OR AT LEAST GIVE HIM AND THE OTHERS READING, THE PROMISE OF AN IDEA BIGGER THAN THIS SPEECH FROM THE MIND OF AN UNRESOLVED, UNCONCLUDED MESS, AND CHILD OF A LESSER god…….ALL THE WHILE KNOWING, WHAT I'VE LEARNED THE HARD WAY, OVER MANY YEARS, THAT I CAN'T GIVE THE TRUTH TO ANYONE, ONLY THE HOLY SPIRIT CAN, WHEN SOME SEMBLANCE OF HUNGER IS AWAKENED……….SO INSTEAD OF ABSOLUTELY CRUSHING THIS SUPREME LEVEL SIMPLETON, SINCE IT WOULD BE TOO EASY, I MUST SLOG THROUGH MY DILEMMA AND CHALLENGE, SINCE GOD MAY YET STILL GIFT THIS POOR SHELL OF A MAN WITH SOME HUNGER, AND MIRACULOUSLY STRAIGHTEN HIM OUT, (BUT NOT SURE IF EVEN GOD IS THAT POWERFUL) BUT ALL THIS ADORATION IN THE TEXT INDICATES NO OPPOSING VIEWS, AND LIKELIHOOD THAT I WILL BE BLOCKED, AND THIS OBAMA LIKE WORSHIP FEST FOR NOOOOOOOOOOTHING WILL CONTINUE, ONE GUY IN THE COMMENTS BELOW WATCHED THIS TRIPE 8 TIMES – (HE DON'T GET OUT MUCH) …..

I COULD GO AT LENGTH, AD NAUSEAM, AT THE TREMENDOUS, COLOSSAL TINYNESS OF THIS MAN'S MIND TO COMPARE ALL THE COMPLEXITY OF GOD'S CREATION TO AN ICE CYCLE, (WHICH HE CLIMAXED HIS SPEECH WITH), AND I WONDER IF THAT WOULD INCLUDE THE LANGUAGE IN DNA, FOR JUST ONE EXAMPLE, CAUSE WITH INFORMATION IN A LANGUAGE COMES AN OBVIOUS INTELLIGENCE, ETC. ETC.

THESE DUDES "THICK WITH BONE IN THE CRANIUM" , LIKE THOSE THAT RUN LOOSE AND WASTE THEIR ENTIRE CAREERS AT CERN, AND THE GUY HERE….. GOING EVER SMALLER, SO THEY CAN TRY AND AVOID THE IMPLICATIONS OF GOD ALMIGHTY, SICKEN ME……..BUT AGAIN, I MUST REMEMBER TO BE GENTLE, AND NOT SLAM DUNK THEM TOO HARD DOWN THE TOILET, AND YET BE PROVOCATIVE, AND TRY TO GIVE SOLUTIONS TO THEIR HORRIBLE PREDICAMENT, THAT THEY FACE FOR ETERNITY……….. SO IN THIS SPEECH TO ENTERTAIN THIRD GRADERS WHO DON'T WATCH PBS AT NIGHT, (BUT ONLY SESAME STREET DURING THE DAY) I MUST REMAIN HELD BACK AND RESERVED, AND NOT LET LOOSE, AND REALLY SPANK THIS GUY FOR TAKING A PAYCHECK FOR SUCH UTTER TRIPE, AND BELIEVE ME, I AM HOLDING BACK A GOOD DEAL, I MUST NOT UTTERLY DESTROY THIS GUY'S CONSPIRACY THEORY (WE DIDN'T GO TO THE MOON), WANNABE INTELLECTUAL, BOOZING, TRUMP HATING, GOD HATING WORLD……… CAUSE GOD IS A GOOD AND MIGHTY GOD, AND MAY HAVE USE FOR THIS GUY'S SPEAKING ABILITIES ONE DAY, BUT EVEN THE CREATOR OF THE UNIVERSE CAN'T, (OR WON'T) GO WHERE HE IS NOT WANTED, SO MY PESSIMISTIC SIDE IS NOT GETTING ITS HOPES UP, BUT GOD IS A LOT MORE POWERFUL THAN MY ATTEMPTS TO WAKE THIS ONE UP, AND HIS MANY DEVOTEES…….

BUT I DON'T SPEAK AS A DEMOCRAT, WITH ALL CRITICISM, AND NO SOLUTIONS TO THIS MASSIVE DEFICIT OF SUBSTANCE………. THIS SPEAKER DEMONSTRATES HE IS IMPLICATION / CONCLUSION CHALLENGED IN THIS VIDEO, SO I ASSUME HE WOULD BE TOO PROUD TO DO ANY LEG WORK, OR RESEARCH HIS WAY OUT OF SUCH EMPTINESS …… SO BEFORE THIS COMMENT IS DELETED, MAYBE THERE IS SOMEONE IN THE AUDIENCE THAT COULD BE HELPED BY NAMES AND VIDEOS LIKE DAVE HUNT AND HIS MASTERPIECE BOOK & VIDEO "COSMOS, CREATOR AND HUMAN DESTINY" – OR HAL LINDSEY'S VIDEO, IN ISRAEL, "RESURRECTION ON TRIAL" – OR ANYTHING BY ASTROPHYSICIST / CHRISTIAN TEACHER DR. HUGH ROSS, OR ANYTHING BY ONE OF THE BEST STRAIGHT UP BIBLE TEACHERS ON YOU TUBE, ROBERT BREAKER – THESE PEOPLE GO SOMEWHERE AND HAVE REAL CONCLUSIONS, AND ARE NOT INTIMIDATED TO GO WITH THE OVERWHELMING INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND EVIDENCE, AND HAVE SPENT THEIR LIVES REVEALING THIS GOOD NEWS ABOUT THE CREATOR IN A MUCH MORE LOVING AND COMPREHENSIVE WAY THAN I COULD EVER DO….. BUT THESE RICH SPOILS ARE ONLY FOR THE HUNGRY, AND NOT FOR THE LAZY/HIGH ON BOOZE & DRUGS / BRAIN DAMAGED LOSERS THAT JUST WANT TO AVOID GOD, AND ARE LITTLE SPOILED BRATS, THAT THINK GOD IS OUT TO RUIN THEIR INDEPENDENT LIVES, AND TELL THEM WHAT TO DO……… INSTEAD OF MAKING THEIR LIVES A LOT BETTER……. AND LONGER….

SO I'D LIKE TO THANK THIS SPEAKER FOR ACCOMPLISHING AT LEAST ONE THING, TO MAKE THE "GENERALS" IN THE "ARMY OF GOD", (SO TO SPEAK), THAT I JUST MENTIONED, INTO TOWERING GIANTS AND INTELLECTUAL WARRIORS, EVEN BIGGER, AND MUCH GREATER, THAN I ALREADY KNEW THEY WERE……. THEY MAKE THIS GUY EXCEEDINGLY SMALL, BY COMPARISON !!!

Pinligt,- Et sjælløst, selvfikseret Tee-Wee konsensus utalent ,- med en pose 5. klasse trivial fysik, fyred af som om han er Oraklet fra Delphi – elendige lille nar !

He thinks he's smart or something… Smart isn't the word for it. Genius, and brilliant are understatements as well. I didn't care for this guy at all at first. That all changed when I shut my judgmental mouth, and listened to what he's saying.

Krauss says words, and they combine in a delightful manner…whereas Ken Ham…well, er…he too says words…but it just isn't the same homehow…and fatuous shit in the presuppositionalist mode is of no use to anyone at all, and is indeed deeply insulting, puerile, vacuous, fatuous (oh we've had that one…!) and ignorant (I will give the poor fellow the benefit of the doubt ; he MAY be deceived, thus being an innocent dupe…as opposed to him being a DECEIVER, which cannot be dismissed as a possibility since there are only 2 possibilities in a dilemma — are these people DECEIVERS, or are they merely DECEIVED ??)

Now aren't you more excited about being a SCIENTIST??!!
That's a sort of in-joke for people such as myself who scour these videos for real content…
Keep it coming Dr.L. Krauss ; thankyou for bothering to err… learn, speak, and counter-apologeticise…and to stand in diametrical opposition to those religious extremists wanting to plunge the West + everyone else back into the fucking Bronze Age. We can do without that, I submit.
Resist islamism and dominionism while you still can.

Does the Higgs field include all the universes in the multiverse, or does each universe have its own Higgs field?

Too bad such an educated man, who has much to tell and teach us, resorts to "liberal, low-life" political statements.

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