Buddhism | World History | Khan Academy

Buddhism | World History | Khan Academy

– [Sal] We’re now
going to talk about one of the most significant figures
in all of human history, and that is Siddhartha Gautama,
who would later be known as Buddha, as the awakened
one, or the enlightened one. Now before we get into his life, let’s think about the
context in which he was born. So we see from this timeline,
most accounts place his birth at around 563 BCE,
although there are some historians who think that he
might have been born about 100, 150 years later than that. But either way, that
would’ve been near the end of the Vedic Period. And the Vedic Period is
named after the Vedas, these Hindu scriptures
written by those Indo-Aryans who came into India,
most historians believe, around 1500 BCE, or maybe before that. Now by the time of Siddhartha’s birth, Hinduism was really
starting to take shape. Many of the things that
we would now recognize as modern day Hindu practice already existed. And he was born into that world. Now on this map here you
see the major sites of Buddha’s life. He’s born in Lumbini,
modern day southern Napal, he eventually meditates at
Bodh Gaya under the Bodh tree where he reaches enlightenment. He does his first preaching at Sarnath, and then he eventually dies at Kushinagar. And to modern Buddhists,
these are still considered major pilgrimage sites. So he’s born, according
to tradition, at Lumbini. His mother is in transit
and born along the way at Lumbini. His mother dies shortly afterwards,
he’s raised by his aunt, but his father in some accounts is a king, a chieftain, and he’s able
to give the young Siddhartha Gautama a very good,
a very sheltered life. And this life continues into his 20s, he’s able to get married, have a child. But at the age of 29 he’s
able to leave the compound. He’s able to see the world
as it really is outside of this world that his father
has created for him, and he sees old age, he sees
sickness, he sees poverty, and this creates a lot of
consternation in Siddhartha. He wonders why this is so,
why is there this suffering in the world? And so he decides, once again, at age 29, to seek the truth, to try
to understand the universe as it is. And remember, this is in
India where it was common practice for religious
ascetics to go off into the woods and to meditate about
the true nature of reality, try to obtain moksha. So he goes and follows that same practice. And for six years, he is
going through the woods, he’s wandering, he’s left all
of his possessions behind, he has left his family behind. He famously starts off
trying to go in the mold of these Hindu ascetics,
letting go of everything, including trying to deprive
the body of food and water, and he almost kills himself. But then eventually, at age
35, he makes his way to the town of Gaya, now known as Bodh Gaya. And over there he meditates
under a sacred fig tree, later known as the Bodhi tree. And he meditates there for seven days. And on the seventh day, it strikes him, he has a revelation, he
awakens, so to speak. And according to Buddhist
tradition, from that moment he becomes the Buddha,
or the awakened one. And for the next 49 days he
makes no contact with anyone, but he eventually makes
his way to Sarnath. And at a deer park there he
re-encounters five of his previous followers and
they had given up on him. But now they see that
there’s a change in Siddhartha, now the Buddha. And he begins to explain
to them what he has seen, what he has discovered. This is a quotation from the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, what is was called in the Pali language, which was the language of Buddha’s time. And it can be translated as
Setting the Wheel of Dhamma, which is another word for
Dharma, the (mumbles) word Dharma, in motion. And Dhamma in Hinduism
means this cosmological law. What you should follow in your life. Dhamma in Buddhism, or Dharma
in Buddhism can mean that, but it can also mean the
teachings of Buddha and the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. The sayings of Buddha at
Sarnath are considered to be his first teachings to his followers. “There are these two
extremes that are not to be “indulged in by one who has gone forth. “Which two? “That which is devoted
to sensual pleasure with “reference to sensual
objects: base, vulgar, common, “ignoble, unprofitable;
and that which is devoted “to self affliction: painful,
ignoble, unprofitable. “Avoiding both of these
extremes, the middle way “leads to calm, to direct
knowledge, to self-awakening, “to Unbinding.” So this is considered to
be Buddha’s first reference to the notion of the middle way. And what’s interesting here,
he’s saying things that are consistent with many
of the Hindu ascetics of the time. That you shouldn’t devote
yourself to sensual pleasure, with reference to sensual
objects, base, vulgar, common, ignoble. But he’s also saying that
you shouldn’t go the other extreme either. You shouldn’t devote
yourself to self-affliction, painful, ignoble, unprofitable. That, too, is not going
to lead to the truth. He says, avoid both of these
extremes, the middle way. Now in the Dhammacakkappavattana
Sutta he goes on to describe what are known
as four noble truths. “Now this, monks, is the
noble truth of suffering,” or dhukka, “Birth is
suffering, aging is suffering, “death is suffering:
sorrow, lamentation, pain, “distress, and despair are suffering. “Association with the
unbeloved is suffering, “separation from the loved is suffering. “Not getting what is wanted is suffering.” So the first noble truth,
he’s describing this notion of dhukka, this notion of suffering. And later on he goes to expand on it. Saying it’s not just
traditional notions of sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress,
but it’s also trying to desire or pursue anything
that is temporary in nature will eventually lead to
dhukka, or suffering. “And this, monks, is the
noble truth of the origination “of suffering, the craving
that makes for further “becoming — accompanied
by passion and delight, “relishing now here, and
now there — craving for “sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, “craving for non-becoming.” So that cause of the
suffering is this craving. Craving for these impermanent things. “And this, monks, is the
noble truth of the cessation “of suffering: the remainderless
fading and cessation, “renunciation, relinquishment, release, “and letting go of that very craving.” So here he’s saying, “Look,
you don’t have to suffer, “there’s a way to escape from it.” And it’s essentially to stop that craving. That’s the third noble truth. “And this, monks, is the
noble truth of the way of “practice leading to the
cessation of suffering.” So, how do you actually
practice life in way that you can seize this suffering? “Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path,” which is another concept
which is quoted a lot in Buddhism, this notion of
these eight things that you need to do in order to
escape from this suffering, from this dhukka, from this craving. “Right view, right resolve,
right speech, right action, “right livelihood, right
effort, right mindfulness, “and right concentration.” This comes from the Dhammapada,
which you can interpret as the path to dhamma. And Buddha says, “All that
we are is the result of “what we have thought: it
is founded on our thoughts, “it is made up of our thoughts.” Which is a core idea in Buddhism. That this notion of separateness, this is just due to our thoughts, it’s all happening in our mind. The psychical reality
that you think is somehow more permanent than
the transient thoughts, it’s all happening in your thought, it’s all happening in your
mind and the separateness is really an illusion. And once again, very similar
idea to what we see in the Upanishads. Now one final idea, Buddha
taught throughout his life, and eventually dies at Kushinagar, which is one of those four
pilgrimage sites that we saw on that map. But really accelerated
the spread of Buddhism, especially beyond India,
was the reign of the emperor Ashoka during the Maurya Empire. And we talk about Ashoka, we
have a whole video on him, but he eventually converts to
Buddhism and he sponsors it, he builds temples, and he
sponsors missionaries to spread Buddhism from Europe
all the way to China. And so Buddha was obviously
the central figure, but Ashoka was the accelerant
that spread Buddhism to the world.

When l was just a kid, learning about Buddha's quotes was boring,
Never thought it gonna useful for my life, but it help me go through all of hard times.
The quote that always help me, called Kalama Sutta.

arian theory is totally wrong. western people lied about it to make them feel superior. no arians migrated to India.

Excellent video, some more facts: Siddhartha's father was told by his court astrologers that his son might become a monk, so his dad keeps him away from all sorrows and the prince leads a happy life till one day he goes out of palace to see the diseased, dead body, old fragile person which disturbs him and eventually he leaves his wife and kid to meditate in the forests

Buddha is the greatest inspiration for me in history , beating everyone including aristotle ,socrates confucius , etc, only thiruvalluvar s thriukural comes closer to his teachings

I am Buddhist, and I have been learning all this stuffs from my childhood. I am just amazed Sal not being Buddhist, had gone through old Buddhist text. I shall read the bible, Quran and all those philosophical books one day.
"Buddha" is not a name, it is a label given to Siddharta and many great scholars who got away with ignorance and achieved enlightenment. Thank you, Sal , you're also a buddha, enlightening many of us.

It's not Siddhartha who is known as Buddha, buddha is someone who is enlightened, Siddhartha was one of the most profound of them, its Gautam Buddha like his name Gautam Siddhartha.

👆🏻 * The killer Brahmin Pushyamitra Sugang, who was assassinated under the conspiracy of the 10th judicial emperor of the Maurya Empire Great Duryodhana Maurya … ✍🏻 *

* की In Pataliputra, the capital of Magadha in Akhand Bharat, the murderer of the 10th Judge of the Maurya dynasty, King Mahendrath Maurya, was the son of Lord Chakraborty Maurya and emperor Ashok Mahan, the creator of Akhand Bharat, who was deceived by his commander Brahmin Pushyamitra Sung, and himself Was declared king of Magadha. *

👆🏻 * When he became king, he had destroyed all Buddhist monasteries from Pataliputra to Shyalkot and openly slaughtered many Buddhist monks. Pushyamitra Shung used to torture the Buddhists and the people here, and on the strength of strength, the character (Hindu) religion was accepted by them as Manusmrtha composed by Brahmins.

👆🏻 * Greek King Milind had the right to the north-west region. King Milind was a follower of Buddhism. As soon as Raja Milind discovered that Pushyamitra Shung was torturing the Buddhists, he attacked Pataliputra. The people of Pataliputra also set up a revolt against Pushyamitra Sung, after which Pushyamitra Shung fled and saved the followers of Jain religion in Ujjaini *.

* As soon as this incident happened to King Kharwail of Kalinga, he declared his independence and attacked Pataliputra *. * Pataliputra pushed the Greek King Milind to the North West. *
👆🏻 * After this Brahmin Pushyamitra Shung Ram joined with his supporters in the middle area of ​​Pataliputra and Shialakot and made his capital Saket. Pushyamitra Shung changed his name to Ayodhya. Ayodhya i.e.-built capital without war … *

👆🏻 * After making the capital, Pushyamitra Shung Ram announced that any person who brings the heads of the Buddhist monks, will be given a reward of 100 gold coins. Thus, the slaughter of the gold coins has led to the massacre of Buddhist monks across the country. The heads of Buddhist monks started coming to the capital. After this some drivers used to steal their brought head and take the gold mud by showing the king again. The King came to know that people are also cheating on this, then the king kept a big stone and seeing the head of the monarch, the monk, killed him on the stone, and wasting his face. After this, the head of a Buddhist monk was thrown into the river Ghaghra *.
* There were so many heads of Buddhist monks in the capital Ayodhya that the name of the river with the shredded heads was named Sarvorda, which has now become "Sarai" in the present.
👆🏻 * On the banks of this "Sarayu" river, Rajavi Valmiki of Pushyamitra Shung wrote "Ramayana". Describing the Maurya emperors as Pushyamitra Shung and Ram as "Ravan", in which Ram had praised his capital Ayodhya and received much more awards from the king. Not only this, the composition of many fictitious Brahmin religious texts like Ramayana, Mahabharata, memories, etc. also happened in the Ayodhya of Pushyamitra Sung, on the banks of "Sarayu" river.

👆🏻 Due to the massacre of Buddhist monks, all Buddhist Vihars have become empty. Then the Arya Brahmins thought, 'What will happen to these Buddhist monasteries that the coming generation never know what it was in the past years *
* Then they changed all these Buddhist monasteries into the temples and established their ancestors and fictional characters, gods and goddesses in the form of God and opened these shops in the name of worship.

👆🏻 Note that before the killing of the great Maurya Maurya, there was no word of temple in India, nor this kind of nature. At present, there is a tradition of breaking the coconut by killing stones at Brahmin religion. This tradition is a symbol of killing the head of a Buddhist monk of Pushyamitra Shung.

👆🏻 * Periyar Ramaswamy Nayakar also wrote "True Ramayana" book which went to Allahabad High Court Case No. * 412/1970 in the year 1970-1971 and Supreme Court between 1971-1976, Case Appeal No. 291/1971 *.
* In which Supreme Court Justice PN Bhagwati Justice VR Krishna Iyer, Justice Mutjah Fazil Ali, on Dec 16.99 976, decided that the true Ramayana is correct and all its facts are correct. The true Ramayana book proves that all the texts in the country known as "Ramayana" are all hypothetical and they have no archaeological basis.
👆🏻 * i.e. 100% is fake and hypothetical *.
👆🏻 * A historical truth that anyone knows … *
👆🏻 * Stay awake, make awareness and share as much as possible … *

No matter how we refer to the history of the world, I did enjoy your posting and thank you kindly for your reply. Harry

Excellent, Sal Khan! Lord Buddha Philosophy is awesome! The Mid Way or keeping a balance on our simple way of life, e.g. Controlling the MIND or Thoughts! However, most of us are becoming slaves to our thoughts and the 5 senses, while some using the word, ADDICTION. That's why, Shree Bhagavan said, " The Mind could be our Best Friend or Worst Enemy, try to control it via, Yoga!"

There were no Hinduism at the time of The Buddha there were vedic philosophy and other 61 philosophy which was against vedic philosophy.
Later on Buddhism disappeared from India but remain in the form of Culture which got mixed with Brahmanism which is now called as Hinduism.

Question : How could he be so clean shaven (as is depicted in his pictures) at a time when there were no razor blades ?

All the teachings of Buddha is 90% same of Vedas or some sanatan Dharma religious books and Hindu dharm is synonyms of sanatan Dharma.it is same like same product is selling in different stores with different packets.

The Buddha didn't got any revelation from anyone, he was a nastik similar to atheist, he got the findings through vipassana and through critical reflection on the self and mortality.

He always asked his followers not to blindly follow him or his believes but rather through inquiry and never believe any scriptures until it logically explains their reason (lotus sutta).


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